Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Insider Trading in India-an Analysis of Yesterday Essay It also contained provisions prohibiting fraud related to securities trading. However, insider trading laws were mostly built with the support of US courtroom decisions. Ultimately, two legislations were enacted which specifically addressed the issue of insider trading, firstly, by the Insider Trading Sanctions Act, 1984 and secondly, by the Insider Trading and Securities Fraud Enforcement Act, 1988. Ã¢â¬ËUtpal Bhattacharya and H. Daouk, in their study on insider trading, state that the jurisprudence on insider trading saw a rise from the 1990s, and only 81 countries out of 103 countries reviewed and had insider trading laws, while prosecution took place only in 38 countries. Ã¢â¬â¢ In India, several committees were formed to check the applicability of the US regulations on Indian soil. The first committee which took the initiative to evaluate the regulations on short swing profit was PJ Thomas Committee, thereby introducing Sections 307 and 308 in the Companies Act, 1956. This basically requires the directors and managers of the company to make shareholding disclosures. However, such discloser requirements were still not enough to curb the nuisance and further deliberations were thought necessary over the matter. Hence, in 1979, Sachar Committee was formed, followed by the Patel Committee (1986) and finally Abid Hussain Committee (1989). All these three committees voiced out their opinion of having an immediate solution to the problem and advocated the need to have a separate law altogether on insider trading in stock market. Finally when the post liberalization period arrived, activities in the Indian stock market were at its peak and hence to acquire the necessary control over the domain, in 1992, the SEBI Act was introduced. The SEBI Act, 1992 in turn used its power to formulate a number of regulations and thus as one of those regulations, the SEBI (Insider Trading) Regulations was born. Later on, the said regulations were amended in 2002 and now it is known as the SEBI (Prohibition of Insider Trading) Regulations, 1992 (hereinafter Ã¢â¬Å"the insider regulationsÃ¢â¬ ). Since then, changes were made at least twice, one in 2002 and another in 2008. Jurisprudence behind Insider Trading Laws Ã¢â¬ËInsider trading occurs when a corporate insider trades on information before it is disclosed to the general public. Ã¢â¬â¢ The fundamental legal principle behind barring such an activity is that anyone who has acquired any kind of material or special information about a security in his fiduciary capacity should not be allowed to trade with the same security for his own benefit. In stock market, trust and confidentiality are two sides of the same coin. Investors invest their money based on the integrity of the market. Hence, to develop a healthy market, both prospective and current investors must feel secured to invest. Law in matters of tracking insider trading, could be of help in two ways, firstly, it could penalize those who engage in insider trading and secondly, it could create an incentive based system which would encourage disclosure of such activities. In past also, there have been catastrophic consequences where innocent public were robbed off their money because of few people who due to their greed jeaopardised the functioning of entire stock market. Stock market is a place where people expect simple demand and supply to influence the price of the securities. So when such prices are rigged, the investors start losing confidence, as a result either they start withdrawing money from the market or they end up not investing at all. This in turn stops the free flow of capital and other very important financial activities which could be very appalling for the economy. Description of Insider Trading as an Offence Laws related to insider trading in India are still in the nascent stage. The SEBI (Prohibition of Insider Trading) Regulations, 1992 gives a very detailed description of insider trading, however no where it has defined the term Ã¢â¬ËInsider TradingÃ¢â¬â¢. For understanding the scheme of insider trading, there are four definitions which could help the various authorities to locate such an activity. The concept of Ã¢â¬ËInsider TradingÃ¢â¬â¢ can be understood when the definitions of Ã¢â¬ËinsiderÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëdealing in securitiesÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëprice sensitive informationÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëconnected personsÃ¢â¬â¢ are read together and understood in consonance with each other. The term Ã¢â¬ËinsiderÃ¢â¬â¢ can be classified for convenience into at least two or more forms.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Often times, authors use specific instances from their lives to produce ideas for stories and incorporate them into his or her works. In the gothic times, dark, threatening, horrific, morbid, depressing, bizarre, bewildering, death and insane are just some words that best describe the popular type of literature at that time. One manÃ¢â¬â¢s name can summarize these words, Edgar Allan Poe. He is considered to be one of the greatest obscure American authors/poets whom many literary scholars still try to make heads or tails of. People throughout the history often wondered why PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s writings are so fantastically diverse and unusual, why his literary style is dark, and why he has so many supernatural connotations in each of his writings. He displays his tragic life, achievements, and mostly his disappointments which occurred over the course of his life in a series of stories and poems. Edgar Allan Poe's works are not only a product of creative genius, but also a reflection of his countless struggles and devastating personal experiences. These occurrences spawn the themes of untimely death, insanity, and revenge that become the focus of his macabre style of writing. Poe's life experiences have a major influence in his writings, including the use of the nature of death and provocative questions about the afterlife. The favorable reason to his macabre works has been thought to be the result of experiencing the many deaths of his loved ones early in his life. Based on PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s works, he believes that the death of a beautiful woman is unquestionably the most poetic topic in the world. For example, in his later poems, most notably, and represents the imaginative repetition of his painful experiences. Jeffrey Scraba, one of the literature critics ... ...oston, Massachusetts: G.K Hall&Co, 1987. N. pag. Print. Medline Plus. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 29 Aug. 2011. Web. 7 May 2012. . Poe, Edgar Allan. The Literature Network. N.p., 2012. Web. 7 May 2012. . Scraba, Jeffrey. "Repetition and Remembrance in Poe's Poerty." Critical Insights The Poetry of Edgar Allan Poe. Ed. Steven Frye. Pasadena California: Salem Press, 2011. 34-46. Print. Stauffer, Donald B. "Style and Meaning in "Ligeia" and "William Wilson"." Critical Essays on Edgar Allan Poe. Ed. Eric W. Carlson. Boston, Massachusetts: G.K Hall&Co, 1987. 115-25. Print. Zlotnick-Woldenberg, Carrie. "Edgar Allan Poe's `Ligeia': An Object-Relational Interpretation." American Journal Of Psychotherapy 53.3 (1999): 403. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 29 Apr. 2012.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Do you agree with the view that the main effect of increasing media coverage of the royal family from the 1970s onwards was to damage the image of the monarchy? There is evidence to suggest that the main effect of increasing media coverage of the royal family from the 1970s onwards was to damage the image of the monarchy. However there is also a case to argue that increasing media coverage of the royal family had other significant effects. Source 15 supports the view that the main effect of increasing media coverage of the royal family from the 1970s onwards was to damage the image of the monarchy when it says the slapstick gameshow Ã¢â¬ËItÃ¢â¬â¢s a Royal KnockoutÃ¢â¬â¢, which many members of the royal family took part in Ã¢â¬Ëseriously dented their dignity: the nation was not amusedÃ¢â¬â¢, which suggests the people of Britain lost respect for the royal family as a result of media coverage. This is supported in source 16 when it says Ã¢â¬ËWe hope the Windsors and their ad visors are watching the mood on the streets and learning from itÃ¢â¬â¢, which implies that the royal family should be careful how they act so they do not lose any further respect from the public. Source 17 also supports the view the main effect of increasing media coverage of the royal family from the 1970s onwards was to damage the image of the monarchy when it talks about a Ã¢â¬Ëtime of uncertaintyÃ¢â¬â¢. This suggests that due to the influence of the media, people were uncertain of how to view the royal family, as they were beginning to be portrayed as less high up in society, and therefore commanding less respect. This is supported in source 15, which says Ã¢â¬Ëtheir magic began to waneÃ¢â¬â¢. This implies that although a certain amount of respect remained for the royal family, they were beginning to be seen as less remarkable to the British public. Events such as Ã¢â¬ËItÃ¢â¬â¢s a KnockoutÃ¢â¬â¢ were aattempts at modernising the relationship between the royal family and the people of Britain, but they reduced the mystique of the family and eroded respect. Source 17 contradicts the view that the main effect of increasing media coverage of the royal family fro m the 1970s onwards was to damage the image of the monarchy when it says that two programmes about the lives of the monarchy Ã¢â¬Ëwere two of the decadeÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest televisual eventsÃ¢â¬â¢ suggesting that one significant effect of the increasing media coverage was to increase the interest and awareness of the royal family. Previously, apart from Queen Elizabeth IIÃ¢â¬â¢s coronation in 1953, there was little knowledge of the lives of the monarchy, and more media coverage meant that people could find out more about them, and see that they are actually normal people. This would allow some relation between ordinary people and the royal family, perhaps gaining them some popularity. This is supported in source 15 which says Ã¢â¬Ëthey could laugh at themselvesÃ¢â¬â¢, suggesting the royal family were increasingly being seen as regular, fun-loving people just like everyone else. This is a stark contrast to how they would have been viewed in previous years, as they were viewed by the public as more traditional, conservative and perhaps even dull. Source 16 contradicts the view that the main effect of increasing media coverage of the royal family from the 1970s onwards was to damage the image of the monarchy when it says that the royal family have Ã¢â¬Ëgrasped the lesson of DianaÃ¢â¬â¢s popularityÃ¢â¬â ¢, implying that the royal familyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation is not being ruined by media coverage and rather that it is increasing their popularity. This is supported in source 17 which says Ã¢â¬Ëthe monarchy was still respected as BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s most prestigious institutionÃ¢â¬â¢ also suggesting that the royal familyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation had not been damaged by media coverage, they had just become more popular and maintained their prestigious status in the meantime. From 1981 onwards there was huge media interest in Diana, Princess of Wales. This has a largely negative impact on the royal family, supporting the view that the main effect of increasing media coverage of the royal family from the 1970s onwards was to damage the image of the monarchy. Not only did it reduce respect for the royal family, making them more into Ã¢â¬ËcelebritiesÃ¢â¬â¢ than well-respected figures, it also arguably led to the death of Princess Diana. The Princess of Wales died in a car crash whilst being pursued b ya car full of paparazzi. This tragic event is a perfect example of how the image of the monarch ywas damaged by increased media inter est; they were no longer really seen as real people, let alone respected. Newspaper articles about them were hugely sensationalised and focused on scandals, rather than trying to maintain the high status of the monarchy. For example, telephone scandals amongst the royal family were widely reported. The Ã¢â¬ËCamillagateÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËSquidgygateÃ¢â¬â¢ stories concerned taped phone conversations that were evidence for extra-marital affairs, and were quite graphic in parts. This led to a dramatic change in how many people saw the Windsor family. It gave people a reason to look down upon them, and people did not think members of the family should engage in such acts when they were supposed to be setting an example to the country. Another prime example of how media influence damaged the image of the royal family was when the Royal Family failed to publically display their grief for the loss of Diana. Previously, this would not have been a problem but such was the extent of the media coverage of the royal family by this time, people were expecting to hear from the Windsors about DianaÃ¢â¬â¢s death. When a message of grief did not come, people thought the royal family were uncaring and rather out of touch with the public. In conclusion, I agree that the main effect of increasing media coverage of the royal family from the 1970s onwards was to damage the image of the monarchy. Source 15 argues this case by saying the royal family were beginning Ã¢â¬Ëto acquire a negative, less tasteful kind of glamourÃ¢â¬â¢. This source is from a textbook, so it is likely that the information is accurate and unbiased, and therefore quite useful as a source. However there is also evidence that increasing media coverage of the royal family had other significant effects, such as increasing the popularity of the royal family and interest in their lives. This keeps the royal family relevant to our society as a symbol of Britain, so it is quite important. As well as this more coverage of the private lives of the royal family would have allowed people to relate better to them, and therefore support them more. This is significant because a monarchy is often seen as useless in our current society, so for the royal family to continue existing there needs to be continual public support. This view is discussed in source 17 which says Ã¢â¬Ëthe monarch ywas stil lrespected as BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s most prestigious institutionÃ¢â¬â¢, suggesting media had positive effects on the royal family rather that just damaging their reputation. Source 17 is quite a reliable source as it is from a textbook, and seems to present quite a balanced view of the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s influence on the royal family. Source 16 on the other hand is less useful to either argument and talks in quite a patronising way about the royal family, saying they hope the Windsors are Ã¢â¬Ëlearning fromÃ¢â¬â¢ the Ã¢â¬Ëmood on the streetsÃ¢â¬â¢. It is an editorial from the Independent newspaper, so may be sensationalised and therefore less accurate.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 592 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/04/12 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Drunk Driving Essay Did you like this example? What Should I Do If I Have Been Hit By a Drunk Driver? The holiday season is known for being a time to celebrate with plenty of food, parties, and alcohol. Unfortunately, because many people have to drive to get to a party, it also means there is a higher chance of people driving while they are intoxicated and causing an accident. These drunk driving accidents can often cause severe injuries and can involve complicated liability issues. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "What Should I Do If I Have Been Hit By a Drunk Driver?" essay for you Create order It is important that you speak to your personal injury lawyer prior to signing anything, speaking to your insurance company, or taking a settlement. The first things you should do following being hit by a drunk driver are: Contact the Police. It is important that you contact the police to receive any emergency medical assistance if anyone needs it. In addition to this, the police will fill out a report which states exactly what they saw, what witnesses saw, any citations either driver received, and other important information that becomes the official record of the accident. By contacting the police because of a drunk driver, you are also making the streets safer for others by getting the drunk driver off the road. Get Checked Out by a Doctor. This may seem like an obvious second step, however, many people believe their injuries are minor after they have been through an accident. Many times the cause of this is the adrenaline is pumping through them. Once it wears off, they could feel much worse. It is important to see a doctor immediately after your accident, as well as going to any follow-up appointments needed. This will speed up your recovery time as well as ensuring all of your injuries and treatments have been well-documented. This will help build your claim against the drunk driver and their insurance company. If you have actual medical records, versus just telling the insurance company you have been injured, it will carry a lot more weight with both the insurance company and the court. Keep Notes of Everything. Another important step is to write down as much as you can remember about your accident with the drunk driver. You should include where and when it happened, as well as a detailed description of what led up to the crash. There should be contact information for any witnesses present, as well as photos of the accident and your injuries immediately after. Another recommended step is to print a map off of Google maps and draw out what happened. You should not count on your memory being as sharp weeks or months later when you may need to tell your story to the court. Do Not Communicate with the At-Fault Drivers Insurance Company. Right after the accident, you may be called by an insurance adjuster to discuss the accident. The adjusters main goal is to find something that will make your claim less valuable and to offer you a low settlement. In most instances, we have found people try and sound as though they are less injured than they actually are. This usually will work against them. It is important to not say anything to the adjuster and let your personal injury lawyer work on your behalf. Contact a Personal Injury Lawyer. Car accidents are scary. They are even more frustrating when they are caused by someone making a poor decision of drinking and driving. You deserve to receive compensation for your injuries and to have someone on your side fighting for you. Contact a personal injury lawyer today to schedule a consultation.