Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Wuthering Heights Relation to Emily BronteÃ¢â¬â¢s life Characterization: 1. Hindley- Bronte used the character of Hindley to represent her brother. Emily BronteÃ¢â¬â¢s brother drank himself to death just as Hindley did. 2. Edgar- When Catherine died, Edgar became exceedingly private and quiet. Edgar represents Emily BronteÃ¢â¬â¢s own father. When BronteÃ¢â¬â¢s mother died, her father followed the same pattern that Edgar did by secluding himself and becoming very quiet. 3. Catherine- Emily Bronte personifies her dislike for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s position in society through CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s love for Heathcliff.Because women are not listened to, Bronte represents herself as a man, Heathcliff, in order to be listened to. 4. CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢ Cold- Emily Bronte caught a cold at her brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral. Setting: Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã Emily lived in an isolated area called Haworth in the West Riding area of Yorkshire. Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange both reflect the isolated area where she lived. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã Because they were isolated socially by there geographical location, Emily and her siblings created fictional worlds.Emily and her sister Anne created Gondal which is a land of moors, and the world is reflected in moors surrounding the two houses. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã Wuthering Heights literally means stormy heights. EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s life had many hardships or Ã¢â¬Å"stormsÃ¢â¬ throughout her life, such as, her brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s alcoholism and some of her family dying from tuberculosis. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã Ã Ã Emily was home schooled because she easily became homesick when away at normal schools. This can be seen through young Catherine because Catherine is home schooled and not aloud to see the outside world without her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s supervision.Mood: I. Tragic A. Death in Wuthering Heights B. Death during EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s lifetime C. Tuberculosis-caused death of characters D. Tuberculosis-caused death of family E. Drunkeness of Hindley Earnshaw F. Drunkeness of BronteÃ¢â¬â¢s brother II. Isolated 1. Cathy and her father 2. Bronte and her father 3. Characters and their reading 4. Emily and her reading Tone: 1. Defiant tone: Book: Catherine is naughty, does not behave. She is against society Ã¢â¬Å"They both promised fair to grow up as rude as savagesÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ (46, chapter 6). She also believed she could do what she wanted. Ã¢â¬ ¦ if I marry Linton I can aid Heathcliff to rise, and place him out of my brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s powerÃ¢â¬ (82, chapter 9). Life: Emily was persistent in her goals and beliefs. She and her sisters attempted to open a school, but it failed because of isolation. Before setting the school up she attended an academy to finish studying French and German. In addition, the three sisters published their works under false names because women writers were discriminated against during the time. 2. Humorous tone: Book: Both Catherine and Cathy have a Ã¢â¬Å"humorous toneÃ¢â¬ in some scenes.The two have the tendency to not take everything seriously all of the time. Ã¢â¬Å"Her spirits were always at high-water mark, her tongue always going-singing, laughing, and plaguing everybody who would not do the sameÃ¢â¬ (42, chapter 5). Cathy has a joyful mood in many instances; the first talking about the Crags. Life: Emily had two imaginary worlds, although she broke off from the first when she was 13 (Angria) The second one, Gondal, she kept on with until she died. 3. Dark, depressing tone: Both EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s life and the novel are filled with the Ã¢â¬Å"darkÃ¢â¬ tone.Death is consistent and parallels with one another. Structure: Symbolism: The cold dark kitchen that is described at the beginning of the book is a symbol of the hatred Emily had for the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"stationÃ¢â¬ that is symbolized by a kitchen. Heathcliffs starving of himself symbolizes his hunger for life, and in his case his life is Catherine. This relates to Bronte through her own hunger for greater expe riences, love, and happiness. She was also anorexic, so heathcliffs physical starvation relates to her own.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
For many years, people have believed that the juvenile justice system was meant to serve as a way to protect the community. Juveniles who commit crimes are different from adults because many do not understand the complexity of the crime committed. In order to respond to these differences, many states have established a way to treat these adolescents through juvenile courts and youth-based recovery systems. While most states recognize that juveniles who commit crimes should not be treated as an adult there are still some that are skeptic that the juvenile justice system works.The juvenile justice system began in 1899, in Chicago, Illinois where the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s first juvenile system was established. In the beginning the system was informal and often times it was nothing more than a conversation between the juvenile and a judge (Juvenile Law Center, 2013). Over the years the system has changed significantly where juvenile courts have created a probation system which provided a diffe rent method to provide juveniles with guidance, supervision, and education.By the 1920s all but two states had followed the suit but it was not until the 1960s where the juvenile justice system was given several of the same legal rights as the adult court. There are many differences between the juvenile and adult criminal systems but they also share their similarities. While their differences vary depending on the state, the similarities can be said to be our natural born rights. One of the main similarities is the right to an attorney (LaMance, 2013). The defendant has the choice of either choosing a public defender to represent them or to hire a paid attorney.Both courts not only give their defendants the right to cross-examine witnesses but also the privilege against self-incrimination. The prosecution must also provide proof beyond a reasonable doubt before either of the two can be charged and convicted (LaMance, 2013). The two also share the right to receive a transcript of the proceedings and the rights to have an appellate court review the lower courtÃ¢â¬â¢s decision. One of the main differences is the overall goal for both courts.While the goal for the adult court is toÃ punish and convict, the juvenile justice system prefers the method of rehabilitation and reformation, thus giving the juvenile a chance to become a productive citizen (LaMance, 2013). Unlike adults, juveniles do not have the right to a public trial and an adjudication hearing is required in order for the judge to determine if the minor is a delinquent. If considered a delinquent, the court then decides which steps should be taken where the best interest for the juvenile is taken into consideration.The juvenile court is still more informal than that of the adult court (LaMance, 2013). An example of their informality is the rule for admissibility of evidence which is much more lenient in the juvenile court. Lastly juveniles are usually not prosecuted for the delinquent acts that he o r she has committed. However depending on the severity of the crime and state laws, juveniles can be transferred and tried in the adult system (LaMance, 2013). The adjudication process in which juveniles are transferred to the adult system varies by state.While some states enable the transfer of certain juveniles with a waiver, depending on their age and offense criteria, other states consider the juvenile to be an Ã¢â¬Å"automatic adultÃ¢â¬ (OJJDP National Report Series: Juvenile in Court, 2013). Although all states allow juveniles to be tried as adults in criminal court there are a few circumstances that follow. All states except for Nebraska, New Mexico, and New York provide a judicial waiver where the juvenile court judge has the authority to waive juvenile court jurisdiction and transfer cases to the adult court.Other states have a concurrent jurisdiction where the original jurisdiction for certain cases is shared by both juvenile and adult courts. The discretion under the c oncurrent jurisdiction is left to the prosecutor. Statutory exclusion is the legislative method, which mandates juvenile prosecution in adult court. Youths charged with certain crimes can be placed in the adult system automatically, thus removing any kind of decision making process from judges or prosecutors (OJJDP National Report Series: Juvenile in Court, 2013).In recent years states have significantly expanded legislation for allowing the use of judicial waivers. This trend has increased the number of juveniles incarcerated throughout the United States and has expectations to rise. Having a juvenile treated as an adult gives them the possibility of life or death sentences and incarceration in state of federal prisons which can have a tremendous impact on the life and future of a juvenile (Find Law, 2013).Although it may be served as a deterrent to some, sending juveniles directly to the adult criminal court gives the juvenile the impression that there is no room for rehabilitatio n or second chances, thus paving the way for a life of crime for others. Since the late 1970s, critics of the juvenile justice courts have pursued to abolish this system with the assumption that this system has failed its purpose, to rehabilitate juveniles (LaMance, 2013). Abolishing juvenile courts holds ramifications for not only juveniles but also the community.Eliminating these courts would mean that all juveniles, no matter the age or crime, would be treated as an adult. Many jobs and careers would be lost for those who have committed their lives to making a difference in the juvenile justice system, jobs such as social workers, juvenile detention guards, and juvenile probation officers. An argument can be made to abolish this system but the idea that young offenders whom are not mentally competent to understand their behavior still stands (LaMance, 2013).Therefore juveniles should be handled in a different court system. The juvenile justice system has grown and changed substan tially since 1899. The justifications of the juvenile court system are that youth are developmentally different from adults and should not be treated the same. Having a system that focuses on the needs of children, who are maturing into adulthood, not only gives the community hope but also gives the juvenile a real chance to rehabilitation and recovery.
Monday, July 29, 2019
William Faulkner's story A rose for Emily - Research Paper Example The story is an excellent example of strong fiction based story telling skills of Faulkner as it took place in his fictional city Jefferson of fictional country Yoknaparawpha (Kerr, p83). The story delicately knits the waves of past and present to form an intricate and attractive tale that basically aims to convey gratitude and empathy to a woman that encountered series of tragedies in her life and acted very strangely towards her life problems (Constance, p848). The story has been told by an unnamed narrator that uncovers the strange incidents of EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s life, her relationship with the people around her and the secret that she was hiding from people. The story describes different phases of her life in different parts. Each of the part focuses upon different time frame and different type of circumstances in the life of Emily. The story became very popular among the masses and critics were also inspired from the Faulkner style due to impressive description of several delicate i ssues and complexities of Emily life in very impressive manner. In the story Faulkner reflects his observations and understanding about abnormal psychology and mysteries solved by the time. He illustrates the relationship between North and South and portrays Emily as tragic heroine. It could be seen as a gothic horror tale or an explanation about strong links between past and present that could influence the behaviours and acts of people in very strange manner (Constance, p848). The intricate phenomenon of link between past and present has been explicitly defined in the story. In face the story is based upon the major theme of depiction of past strongly linked with the present. The dialogue of a major character in the story Gavin Stevens clearly tell about the main message of the story Ã¢â¬Å"The past is never dead. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not even pastÃ¢â¬ . This idea has been depicted very beautifully and proficiently in the story because it describes the life of Emily spanning around 74 ye ars and different parts of the story take the readers backward and forward while chasing the occurrences in EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s life during different phases (Celia, p2) The description of different phases life of Emily linked with each other indicates that the memories pass from one generation to another and influence the present and future of the people by affecting their thinking and behaviours. For instance, when Emily started dating Homer Barron she was actually trying to feel free from the past control of her father and the traditions that always compel her to be a proper lady with values and norms (Clay, p43). The story spans around 74 years during which the readers could experiences the socio-political changes in Post and Pre Civil War era. It also shows the time when American South was on its midpoint and struggling to seek better ways that could honour the goods of past. The Civil was also ended up the greatness of the Old South that is often depicted in many stories written by Faulkner. He writes on the lines that there are some realities and development that people found difficult to accept and Ã¢â¬Å"the reality and myth are difficult to separateÃ¢â¬ (Faulkner, p78). The end of the Old South greatness was not easy to accept for many people who refused to accept the change in their position and conditions and it was really tough for them to realize the their old days were gone and the society was heading towards new era. These people tried to live in the golden memories of their past be cherishing their precious memories and strived to maintain the values and customers of South. Miss Emily was also among the people who were trying to live with the faded customs and rituals of the past. The folks of her town were also nostalgic and became
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Of the Film Immortal Beloved - Movie Review Example The film Ã¢â¬Å"Immortal BelovedÃ¢â¬ was released in 1994 and dealt with the life and loves of the famous composer Ludwig van Beethoven. It is both a beautiful tribute to the genius of a man who gave to the world such great masterpieces as the Ninth Symphony (made while completely deaf) and an attempt to throw new light into a mystery that has perplexed and fascinated many Beethoven scholars and researchers. In particular, it concerns the mystery behind the true identity of the Ã¢â¬Å"Unsterbliche GelliebteÃ¢â¬ or the Immortal Beloved. Three letters that were found in the private files of the renowned singer were addressed to this Immortal Beloved. The movie begins upon the death of Beethoven and his assistant is faced with the task of carrying out the instructions in the Last Will and Testament. He chances upon one of the letters addressed to an Ã¢â¬Å"Immortal BelovedÃ¢â¬ and wonders who this might be. The movie then shows a series of flashbacks from the famous musicianÃ¢â ¬â¢s past and comes to the conclusion, after showing Schindler interviewing several people, that BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s Immortal Beloved is none other than Johanna Reiss, the daughter of a prosperous Viennese upholsterer named Anton van Reiss. In the film, she had become pregnant out of wedlock with BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s child, but because of a series of unfortunate events, she did not marry him, but rather she married his brother Kaspar. The movie, however, cannot be considered a faithful depiction of the life of Beethoven. It is a work of fiction and should be taken as such. There are several things about it that were true, such as the fact that Schindler was indeed a secretary and a close confidante, that he had gotten into a legal battle with his sister-in-law Johanna (the one who the film suggests is the Immortal Beloved) and there is indeed the love letter which was found in the possession of Beethoven after his death. Most importantly, it showed the intensity of the man and his mu sic, and the raging emotions that this music depicted. Ã¢â¬Å"It is the power of music to carry one into the mental state of the composer,Ã¢â¬ is a powerful line in the movie, delivered by Beethoven, as magnificently played by Gary Oldman. Maynard Solomon, a Beethoven biographer and scholar, had called the love letter the only Ã¢â¬Å"unalloyed love letter of [Beethoven's] bachelor existenceÃ¢â¬âan uncontrolled outburst of passionate feeling, exalted in tone, confused in thought, and ridden with conflicting emotions" (Beethoven, p. 159). However, and this is an important historical inaccuracy, it cannot be true that the recipient of that letter wherein he referred to the unidentified woman as Ã "mein Engel, mein alles, mein Ich . . . meine unsterbliche Geliebte" (which translates as "my angel, my all, my I . . . my immortal beloved") According to Maynard Solomon, the woman being referred to in the letter is not Johanna Reiss Beethoven, but rather, it is a married woman by the name of Antonie Brentano. Her husband and sister-in-law are friends of Beethoven, with the latter even introducing the composer to the famous German poet Goethe. Through fine investigation skills and deft use of dates, Solomon had managed to place Brentano in Prague from July 1 to July 4, 1812, when Beethoven says he saw her. Brentano also went ahead to Karlsbad, a small spa town, where she and Beethoven had planned to meet later that summer. Beethoven had also dedicated the op. 109 piano sonata, the magisterialÃ Diabelli Variations, and the English edition of the op. 111 piano sonata to Brentano and her daughter Maximiliane. Maynard Solomon suggests that Brentano, who was a great fan of the music of Ludwig Beethoven, had also fallen in love with him and their relationship, even though short-lived because Beethoven could not see any long-term prospects in carrying on a relationship with a married woman, was a serious one. Fanny Giannatasio, who Beethoven had met at a later time, had bewailed the fact that he was still in love with another woman and Solomon concludes that it was
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Why Should the Wendy's Brand Enter the European Market - Research Paper Example .... 1.2 Research MethodologyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦... 1.3 Research ObjectivesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 1.4 ReliabilityÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 1.5 Data Collection and PresentationÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 1.6 LimitationÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 2. Data PresentationÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 2.2 Data AnalysisÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 2.3 Research Findings Ã¢â¬â FranceÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 2.4 Research Findings Ã¢â¬â Denmark and the United KingdomÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 2.5 Research Findings Ã¢â¬â SpainÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦... 2.6 Research Findings Ã¢â¬â WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s Best PracticeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 3. Conclusion and RecommendationsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â ¬ ¦ 4. Report EvaluationÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 5. References 1. Introduction: WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s is a well known American Burger Fast Food which operated over 6,500 restaurants under the WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s Brand in 26 countries and territories in the world. (The Wendy's Company, 2011). Since WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s International was separated from the WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s U S Brand in 2009 the Brand has laid the groundwork for a much more adapted international expansion which has been really positive according to Darrell van Ligten, President of WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s international (2011). The Brand is still growing with new restaurant development announcements in Singapore, the Middle East and Nord Africa, the Russian Federation, The Eastern Caribbean, Argentina, the Philippines and Japan (The Wendy's Company, 2011). Unfortunately according to the map of WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s Around the World WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s International is missing on an important market which is Europe representing 17.10% of the Global Fast Food Market (2009). According to the Industry profile of Fast Food in Europe the European market reach a value of 34.2 billion of dollars and grew by 4,4% (Datamonitor, 2009). To be more precise the French Market of fast food industry in 2009 was 6.4 billion of dollars with a faster growth than the German and UK market (Datamonitor, Fast Food Industry Profile: France, 2010). 1.1 Aim: The aim of this research is to investigate on the advantage that the WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s Brand could get by entering the European Market. 1.2 Research Methodology During this research a longitudinal approach was used to identify a problem, which identified the need of the WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s Brand to grow in Europe due to the expansion of the brand in the International Market. Then research to understand the relevant gathered information and interpret them in their context. In order to construct a realistic study the researcher tried to have equilibrium between data collection and data analysis. A deductive approach was use during this research which involves the development of a theory that is subjected to a rigorous test like a scientific research. According to Robson there are five sequential stages through which deductive research will progress: 1. The hypothesis, Europe is an interesting Market for WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s. 2. Expressing the hypothesis in operational terms, like how much revenue could WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s expect expending in Europe. 3. Testing this operational hypothesis, with the research on three objectives. 4. Examining the specific outcome of the inquiry, for example what would be the benefices for the WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s brand to be developed in Europe? 5. If necessary, modifying the theory with the
Friday, July 26, 2019
British airways and Iberia airlines merger - Essay Example Brief History of British Airways (BA) British Airways (BA), the flag carrier of the UK, is the largest airline in the United Kingdom on the basis of fleet magnitude flights and terminus. The airline was established in 1974 and has ruled the airline industry since its creation as regards passenger volume until the arrival of low-cost competitor, Easyjet in 2008. BA has been centered at London Heathrow Airport, which is the airlineÃ¢â¬â¢s central hub. In its growth strategies, BA acquired Dan-Air, which increased its popularity at Gatwick Airport. BA also acquired 25 percent shares in Australian airline, Qantas in 1993. In 1998, the airline together with other leading airlines formed an alliance dubbed Ã¢â¬Å"Oneworld airline alliance.Ã¢â¬ The airline was privatized in 2006. BA experienced 84 percent drop in profits in 1999, its worst performance in seven years. Consequently, Rod Eddington succeeded Robert Ayling as the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO. Willie Walsh later replaced Rod Eddington and steered the merger process. The airline sold its Qantas stake in 2004. BA and lberia made public a merger plan in 2010. BA stopped trading in London Stock Exchange in 2011. The alliance between BA and lberia emerged third largest airline group globally. In Europe, it was second biggest airline group. Brief History of lberia From 1944 to 2001, lberia remained nationalized. After privatization on April, 2001, lberia joined stock markets and was integrated in the IBEX-35 stock index of the Madrid Stock Exchange. The privatization lasted up to 2009 after which the airline formed a merger with British Airways in 2010, which gave birth to International Airlines Group. Under the merger, each airline retained its original brand.
A Challenging experience in life and what I learned from it - Essay Example Everything felt like a white lie. I even thought mum would leave me some day like dad did, although I knew that would never happen. Mum and grandma stood by me and filled all that confidence in me that led me to explore my hidden talents, and I found a world class performer in me. All these years, I have been practicing dance for it is my passion. I am not only a wonderful dancer, but am also a nice vocalist and have entertained the audience in some musical theatres. I see a strong connection between what happened to me in the early childhood and my interest in singing. I have always been fond of sad songs. Having listened to them too much, I crammed up many of them and started to sing them. People say that my voice comes from the heart because I do justice to the gravity of words in altering the frequency of my voice along the way as I sing. The fundamental reason I am applying to this college is the fact that I want to build my career in performing arts. The familial tension that I have been in for many years in my childhood has indeed, changed me for the better. I think that having been in pain for so long, I understand what it feels like and so, I can never think of betraying anyone. In my class, I am known as the most loyal friend. I am loyal because I wanted to become unlike my father. So the quest for revenge has nicely transformed into a strength that I am greatly appreciated for. Today, I am a very strong person. Perhaps, I would not have been as strong had I not grown up in these
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Anti-Terrorism and Human Rights - Essay Example What human rights commission emphasise upon is to maintain peacekeeping and peacemaking in a political context, this is usually done by military as counter-terrorist and counter-insurgency operations. Since political nature of such operations have their own demands that deviate from those of human rights, in which every officer, non-commissioned, and soldier involved is well aware that even the most minor action by the military may carry with it major political consequences. What these operations have in difference with human rights is the close political scrutiny and control, and therefore, they require intimate civil, military, and police cooperation at all times. Human rights negate the use of military means i.e., firepower, mass, mobility, speed, which is subjected to the political limitations imposed on the conduct of the campaign. The objection is upon the usage of weapons and tactics employed for they must be proportional to the military response and must be commensurate with the political reality2. Reconciling the demands of the two philosophies of one subject enables ... iracy is difficult to reconcile with that of human rights commission, but Britain's CJTCA4 is trying hard to cope up with unfavourable suppositions on behalf of any police officer's opinion to reconcile with the fair trial provisions of the HRA (Human Rights Act)5. However HRA negates CJTCA to anticipate judges and juries drawing inferences from a suspect's silence while in the custody of police interrogation. Other issues that oppose HRA is the significance of the opinion as an evidence of a senior police officer that a defendant is a member of a terrorist group is also admissible at trial. Since many of the international treaties focusing on 'anti-terrorism' agrees that national courts and conferred supplementary, non-exclusive jurisdiction need not to focus very clearly on any threshold for jurisdiction in terms of the gravity or systematic character of the crimes covered. Such treaties believe that individual acts covered by the suppression treaties could be relatively routine or could be not very different in quality from serious acts of terrorism6. Jurisdiction possess the authority to exercise over them but the acts themselves as considered in isolation are extra ordinary that by contrast are unable to be given international jurisdiction. However terrorism crime is above the most common and most serious problems, at the high end of the spectrum of international crimes, which once were considered as crimes against humanity and war crimes in internal armed conflict. Since anti-terrorism law covers the availability of jurisdiction over genocide and has tended to lead to arguments for a broader interpretation of the definition of genocide, therefore terrorism must not be dealt with a soft corner of human rights as it may pave the way to happen in other crimes.
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Management and Leadership Skills in Team Building - Essay Example As Leonard (2004) indicated, effective communication and teamwork are essential for the delivery of high quality, safe patient care. In another study, Nash & Govier stated that there is enough evidence showing that effective teams can improve membersÃ¢â¬â¢ well-being as well as quality of care. Health care providers recognize the importance of team working in preventing patient errors Ã However, for teams to be effective, effectiveness should begin from the initial stages of team building. The determinants of an effectual team include member satisfaction, cohesiveness, effective communication, quality leadership and organizational culture. Another element of effective team working is adherence to behavioral norms or rules as Nash & Govier (2009) noted that among the elements of successful teams setting up and understanding the ways of working (rules) is of utmost importance. These elements can be achieved by the collective influence of good leadership and management.As Leonard Ã indicated, effective communication and teamwork are essential for the delivery of high quality, safe patient care. In another study, Nash & Govier stated that there is enough evidence showing that effective teams can improve membersÃ¢â¬â¢ well-being as well as quality of care. Health care providers recognize the importance of team working in preventing patient errors.Ã However, building an effective team requires top notch leadership skills because it involves bringing together people with different personalities.
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Anatomy of a Family Law Case - Research Paper Example The status of each member chances when the couple enters into the marriage agreement (Folberg, & Milne, 2000). For instance, the man becomes a husband and the woman becomes a wife. It gives the husband new responsibilities and rights as well as the woman. Legally, a marriage is greatly honored since it is perceived to be the basis of the family. Traditionalists view a marriage as the as the starting point of preserving moral status in the community. It is in the view of traditional ethics that in a marriage, the husband provides support of the family by providing the necessary requirements like food, clothing, and shelter among other essentials. On the other hand, the wife has the obligation of serving her husband and the family at large. She has the duty to take care of the children, maintaining the house, living in the home and engaging in sexual activities with her husband. The current law has tried to modify traditional functions of the married people since many women have joined the working forces in large numbers. Husbands on the other hand engage in taking care of children and taking care of their homes while their wives are at work. Any individual who may require making alterations in the marriage agreement must do it in accordance with the law. ... The laws protect all marriages whether the couple may be interested or not. Legal rights and benefits of a married couple There are several benefits and rights that one gets when they are married. The society treats the couple as a grown up and one can get priorities while making medical resolutions and receive assistance on behalf of the other family member. It includes rights that may need attorney and other related legal requirements. Social security, medical and disability benefits can be paid to a spouse as well as military and veteran benefits. All employers usually include spouses of their employees to insurance plans, a service that unmarried people cannot receive. The employers also provide bereavement leave for married people to attend funeral programs of their members and allow a spouse to care for the other during illness. Marriage gives a partner the right to visit a spouse in jail or in hospital and sue somebody on behalf of him or her (Ahrons, 2004). Spouses that divor ce are entitled to sharing of the property of the community according to legal requirement of most of the nations. In case of death of one spouse, the other spouse is entitled to organize funeral preparations without intimidation of any form. The married couple is allowed to file a joint tax return and get the ability to organize for partnership to raise capital for business operations (Bohannan, 2005). Ending a Marriage According to the Law of California any individual who wish to file a divorce or separation must reside from a different residence from his or her partner for one full year before the process begins. It gives the spouses an opportunity to reconsider their stands before annulment. The annulment determines that the marriage did not
Monday, July 22, 2019
Specific threats Essay 1. Air pollution This event could affect students and staff who are susceptible to respiratory problems. The following principles should be observed. a. A file of students and staff who have or are susceptible to respiratory problems. The file should contain data on the location of such persons at different times during the day. b. When notified from district via news media of a smog advisory, the principal shall inform all staff and notify those individuals in file to stay indoors and minimize physical activity. c. Cancel all athletic competitions and practices and any other activities which require strenuous physical activity such as marching band, etc. d. Cancel any events, which require the use of vehicles. 2. Bomb threats In the event that the university receives a bomb threat, by letter or telephone, the following procedures will be accomplished. a. If the bomb threat is in the form of a letter, note the manner in which it was delivered, who found it and where it was found. Take care while handling the message by immediately placing it in an envelope so that possible fingerprints may be detected. b. If the bomb threat is a telephone call, keep the caller on the line. Delay the caller with statements such as I am sorry, I did not understand you. What did you say? Note the time the call was received, manner of caller, background noises and what the caller is saying. Use the following guidelines that follow to assist you. Immediately notify the police and fire departments (or designee) (call 911). If the caller is still on the phone, call the phone company to trace the call. Instruct staff and students to turn off any pagers, cellular phones or two-way radios. Do not use these devices during this threat. Caution students against picking up or touching any strange objects or packages. If the suspected bomb is in a corridor, modify evacuation routes to bypass the corridor. Evacuate students using primary and alternate routes. Take emergency backpack and student kits. Check to be sure all students have left the building. Upon arrival at the designated safe site, take roll. Notify the designee and emergency response personnel of any missing students. Does not return to the building until emergency response officials determine it is safe. 3. Chemical accident Chemical accidents of a disaster magnitude could result from a transportation accident or an industrial accident. Should any such accidents endanger the students or staff, the following will be accomplished. An alert message will be broadcast over the Ã¢â¬Å"school weather RadioÃ¢â¬ and the safety siren may be heard. The following should be observed; Have all students report to nearest designated building. Close all doors and windows, shut off ventilation, and listen to the radio (shelter-in-place). Take roll. Notify designee of any missing students. If necessary, use tape, rags, clothing or any other available material of seal air leaks. Continue to shelter in the place unless advised to do otherwise. Monitor and radio station for further instructions. If you believe that gas is entering the building, protect everyone with a wet cloth or towel over the mouth and nose. Have everyone breathe in short, quick shallow breaths. If evacuation orders are received, proceed with evacuation plan. Evacuate students. A check should be performed to be sure all students have been evacuated. 4. Threat of explosion This incident could be the result of spilled cleaning chemicals within the school building, in the university lab, a material a student brings to university, or a broken gas main. Should any such accidents endanger the students or staff, take the following actions; Determine if evacuation is required. Notify appropriate local authorities of incident (call 911). If necessary, proceed with evacuation procedure using primary or alternate routes, avoiding exposure to the chemical fumes. Evacuate students from the building using primary and/or alternate fire routes (p.14). Check to be sure all students have left the building. Students are to remain quiet during evacuation. Upon arrival at evacuation site, take roll and report attendance to designee immediately. Notify emergency response personnel of any missing students. Do not return to the building until emergency response personnel have determined it is safe. 5. Fire This incident could occur if the school building is on fire; should any such event endanger the students or staff, the following will be accomplished. Notify the fire Department (call 911). Proceed to evacuate the school using the primary or alternate fire routes. An inspection will be performed to be sure all students and personnel have left the building. Evacuate students from the building using primary or alternate fire routes. Take emergency backpack and student kits. MaintainÃ Control of the students a safe distance from the fire and fire fighting equipment. Report any missing students to the designee and emergency response personnel. Do not return to the building until the Fire Department determines it is safe. 6. Earthquake If indoors: Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã Stay inside, move away from windows, shelves, heavy objects or furniture which may fall over. Take cover under a table or desk. Instruct the students to DUCK-COVER-HOLD. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã In halls, stairways, or other areas where cover is not available, move to an interior wall. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã In library, immediately move away from windows and bookshelves. Take appropriate cover. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã In laboratories, all burners should be extinguished (if possible) before taking cover. Stay clear of hazardous chemicals, which may spill. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã In the multi-use room, take cover under the tables or move close to the interior walls away from windows. If outdoors: Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã Move to an open space, away from buildings and overhead power lines. Lie down or crouch low to the ground (legs will not be steady). Keep looking around to be aware of dangers, which may demand movement. 7. Tornado Severe weather can be accompanied by high winds. If this type of weather poses any risk to the staff or students the following shall be accomplished. An alert message will be broadcast over the weather radio (WTTS, 92.3 FM is the local Emergency Alert System station for Bartholomew, Brown, Decatur, Jackson, Lawrence and Monroe Counties.)Staff and students should take cover in the shielded areas within the building. Stay away from windows. Close all blinds and curtains. Avoid auditoriums, gymnasiums and other structures with large roof spans. Monitor weather radio and AM radio station. Notify utility companies of any break or suspected break in utility lines. 8. Threatening individual This incident could occur if a belligerent person or armed person appeared at the school site. Should such an individual threaten the safety of students or staff, the following shall be accomplished.
Ecological Agriculture for Sustainable Development Siddaraju V. G [*] Dr. M. Indira [**] Introduction Sustainable development is relevant issue of the present day. Sustainable development refers to development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. Sustainable development is achieved through sustainable agriculture. Food security for the common man is a basic right. Over 800 millions people in the world suffer from hunger which has to be reduced by half by the year 2015. Agriculture plays a crucial rule in addressing the needs of a growing global population, and is inextricably linked to poverty eradication, especially in developing countries. Sustainable agriculture and rural development is essential to the implementation of integrated approach to increasing food production and enhancing food security in an environmentally sustainable way. According to Pingali (2001) many countries across the world provide support for modern agriculture, mainly to increase the productivity for commercial purpose without considering the environment sustainability. Therefore, the concept of sustainability of agriculture is gaining momentum from last few years. The concept of Ã¢â¬ËSustainabilityÃ¢â¬â¢ has been discussed in Earth Summits of 1992 and 2002. The Earth summit offered an opportunity for the global community to address key action on agriculture with a view to sustainability and reducing poverty and hunger, protecting biodiversity and access to resources for small farmers everywhere. Sustainable development has three components i.e., economic sustainability, environmental sustainability and social sustainability. Ecological agriculture addresses the environment or ecological aspects of sustainability. Sustainable agriculture embraces several variants of non-conventional agriculture that are often called organic, alternative, regenerative, and ecological or low input. Ecological agriculture based on ecological principles aim at maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and conserve natural resources without using chemical inputs leading to sustainable development. The difference between sustainable agriculture and ecological agriculture is that sustainable agriculture is a broad concept compared to ecological agriculture. Ecological agriculture systems are one of the means of attaining sustainable agriculture. Sustainable agriculture aims continuous increase in yield and greater resilience. For a sound future, ecological agriculture offers a dynamic interaction between soil, animal, humans, ecosystem and environment. Ecological agriculture is economically viable because: Reduction in the use of external inputs and increase in farm organic inputs with the greatest potential to benefit the health of farmers and consumers. More productivity through the incorporation of natural process as nutrient cycles, nitrogen fixation, and pest predator relationships in to the agricultural production process. Greater productive use of the biological and genetic potential of plant and animal species. Improvement of the match between cropping patterns and the productive potential and physical limitations of agricultural lands to ensure long term sustainability of current production levels and Profitable and efficient production with emphasis on improved management and conservation of soil, water and energy and biological resources. The basic requirement in organic farming is to increase input use efficiency at each step of the farm operations. This is achieved partly through reducing losses and adoption of new technologies for enrichment of nutrient content in manure (Sravanan, 2006). The concept of organic farming lays emphasis on economic and ecological sustainability of agricultural system and hence avoids the dependence on chemical pesticides use (Dhawan and Deshmukh, 2005). According to Charjan and Hajare (2002) organic farming is only an alternative, which may not be acceptable on short-term basis, but may be viable on long-term basis, perhaps due to number of issues. An attempt is made in this paper to analyze the economic performance of ecological agriculture and modern agriculture system and to identify the reasons for the transition from modern agriculture to ecological agriculture. Methodology The present study is based on primary data collected from 50 ecological farmers and 50 modern farmers in the production of Paddy and Sugarcane in Mysore and Mandya districts of Karnataka. Economic performance of any system could be analyzed by analyzing the costs and returns. In the present study relative economic performance of ecological and modern agriculture is analyzed in terms of Farm Business Income (FBI). Location, distribution of sample farmers is presented in table 1. Table 1: Particulars of selected district and taluk District Taluk No. of Ecological farmers No. of Modern Farmers Mysore Mysore 16 16 Nanjanagud 9 9 Mandya Mandya 14 14 Maddur 11 11 The above table shows that Location, distribution of sample farmers. Ecological farmers are located in Mysore and Nanjanagud taluks in Mysore district and Mandya and Maddur taluks in Mandya district. Mysore taluk in Mysore district has the large number of ecological farmers and Mandya taluk in Mandya ditrict has more number of ecological farmers. Equal numbers of modern farmers were selected for comparative analysis. Analysis and Discussion Economic Performance Farm Business Income (FBI) is one of the indicators to measure the economic profitability of an agriculture farm. It has been chosen to understand the relative economic profitability of ecological farming and modern farming systems in the production of selected crops. FBI is the difference between the gross returns and Cost A1. Farm Business Income = Gross Income Ã¢â¬â Cost A1 Cost of Cultivation Average cost and returns under ecological and modern agriculture in the production of paddy and sugarcane are presented below. Paddy Average cost per acre in the production of paddy under ecological and modern farming systems, yield per acre, returns from main product and returns from by product, net returns per acre are presented in table 2. Table 2: Costs and Returns from Ecological and Modern Agriculture in the Production of Paddy Sl. No. Particulars Ecological Agriculture Modern Agriculture 1 Farm Power 6147 5539 2 Organic Nutrients 1957 655 3 Chemical Fertilizers 1030 4 Seed 367 352 5 Irrigation 379 389 6 Land Tax 29 24 7 Depreciation Charge on Farm implements 1018 449 8 Depreciation Charge on machinery 623 603 9 Repair of Machineries 449 233 10 Total Cost of Cultivation (1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9) 10968 9274 11 Yield (Quintal/acre) 23 22 12 Price Received (Rs/quintal) 639 612 13 Returns from main Product (Rs/acre) 14697 13464 14 Income from by-product (Rs/acre) 1067 786 15 Gross Returns/Rs (13+14) 15764 14250 16 Net returns/Rs (15-13) 4796 4975 Source: Survey Data Gross returns from paddy produced under ecological agriculture found to be marginally higher compared to the paddy produced under modern farming system. While gross returns from ecological agriculture was Rs. 15764 per acre, the same from modern agriculture was Rs. 14250 per acre, a difference of Rs 1514 per acre. But net return was relatively low from ecological agriculture (Rs. 4795 per acre) compared to modern agriculture (Rs. 4975/acre), because cost of cultivation was higher for ecological farms (Rs. 10969 per acre) compared to modern farms (Rs. 9274/acre). Cost of organic nutrients, farm power, farm depreciation charges are higher in ecological agriculture. Marginal differences could be seen in other costs. While organic nutrients were expensive, the transportation of FYM, its administration, transplantation, weeding require more labour, which is reflected in the farm power. Farm depreciation charge is higher in ecological agriculture due to more use of farm equipments. The yie ld from ecological agriculture was not found to be much higher than modern agriculture. While ecological farms produced 23 quintal/acre, 22 quintal/acre were produced from modern farms. Ecological farmers received Rs. 27 per quintal of paddy, which is slightly higher price than the modern farmers. The yield and price was not much difference under the two methods of cultivation. Therefore, net return also was not much different. Sugarcane Sugarcane is a commercial annual crop grown mainly in Mandya and Mysore districts of Karnataka. Average costs and returns in the production of sugarcane is presented in table 3. Table 3: Costs and Returns under Ecological and Modern Agriculture in the Production of Sugarcane Sl. No. Particulars Ecological Agriculture Modern Agriculture 1 Farm Power 22589 20441 2 Organic Nutrients 2414 861 3 Chemical Fertilizers 3502 4 Seed 1300 1300 5 Irrigation 424 443 6 Land Tax 27 26 7 Depreciation Charge on Farm Implements 1800 3403 8 Depreciation Charge on Machinery 1172 1499 9 Repair of Machineries 500 204 10 Total Cost of Cultivation (1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9) 30225 31679 11 Yield (Ton/acre) 52 49 12 Price Received (Tonn/Rs) 989 961 13 Gross Returns/Rs 51428 47089 14 Net Returns/Rs (13-10) 21203 15410 Source: Survey Data Net returns from sugarcane were found to be higher from ecological farms (Rs. 21202 per acre) compared to modern farms (Rs. 15410 per acre). Similarly the gross returns were Rs. 51428per acre from ecological agriculture and Rs. 47089 per acre from modern agriculture. Relatively higher cost of cultivation in modern agriculture is due to higher cost of chemical fertilizers and farm depreciation charges. Chemical fertilizers like Urea, Potash, Complex and Salt were expensive. Farm depreciation charge is higher in ecological agriculture due to more use of farm equipments. Marginal differences could be seen in other costs except farm power. Because the cost of the transportation of FYM, weeding, harvesting and its administration require more labour, which is reflected in the farm power. The cost of cultivation of sugarcane with modern agriculture is costing Rs. 1454 more per acre. Yield per acre under ecological farming is nearly three ton more than that from modern cultivation and ecolog ical farmers received Rs. 28 higher for one ton of sugarcane than the modern farmers. Higher yield and returns have contributed to higher returns from ecological farming than the modern farming. Net returns from sugarcane under ecological farming are Rs. 5792 more than that from modern agriculture. Farm Business Income Farm business income under ecological and modern agriculture in the production of annual crops (paddy and sugarcane) is presented in table 4. Table 4: Farm Business Income of Annual Crops under ecological and modern farming system Paddy Sugarcane Variables Ecological Agriculture Modern Agriculture Ecological Agriculture Modern Agriculture Gross Returns 15,764 14,250 51,428 47,089 Cost A1 10,968 9,274 30,225 31,679 Farm Business Income (FBI) 4,796 4,976 21,203 15,410 Source: Survey Data The above table shows that larger variation in the FBI could be observed in the production of Sugarcane, which is a commercial crop. In the production of Paddy, FBI under ecological farming is marginally lower i.e., by Rs.180. Cost A1 under ecological agriculture is higher by Rs.1694 per acre. However gross returns is higher by Rs.1514 per acre. But in the case of sugarcane, FBI from ecological cultivation is higher by Rs.5, 793 per acre. In the case of sugarcane, cost of cultivation under ecological cultivation is relatively low. It is lower by Rs.1, 454 per acre. Gross returns are higher under ecological agriculture. The above analysis clearly shows that ecological agriculture is economically profitable. It has double advantage to the grower; it provides greater returns to the growers at present and ensures the sustainability of these returns in future by protecting the fertility of the soil. Transition Transition is the process of conversion from modern agriculture to ecological agriculture. After introduction of all necessary changes needed also, it might take some time before the transition is completed. Modern farming system depends on external inputs and is market oriented. On the other hand ecological farming is based on ecological principles of nature and depends more on inputs produced on farm. The production under ecological agriculture need not necessarily for subsistence. The growers may have several objectives in shifting from modern system of cultivation to ecological system. By understanding the motivation behind the shifting, it is possible to encourage more conversions. Reasons for Transition Process Information on what made the selected farmers to switch over to organic farming system from modern farming system was gathered. In many cases majority of the farmers reported that transition from modern agriculture to ecological agriculture was due to the possibility of producing healthy food, environmental protection and soil fertility management under organic farming system. A detailed analysis of Paddy and Sugarcane is presented in table 5. Table 5: Crop wise Reasons for transition from modern agriculture system to ecological agriculture system Sl. No Reasons for transition Frequency and Percentage Paddy Sugarcane 1 Cost of cultivation is low 8 (28.6) 10 (35.7) 2 Health 28 (100.0) 23 (82.1) 3 Employment 14 (50.0) 15 (53.6) 4 Soil Fertility Management 20 (71.4) 22 (78.6) 5 Environmental Protection 16 (57.1) 19 (67.9) 6 Yield 18 (64.8) 12 (42.9) Source: Survey Data, Note: Values within brackets represent percentage to total growers (Percentage donÃ¢â¬â¢t add to 100 due to multiple response) In recent years paddy farmers are practicing ecological agriculture due to different reasons. According to selected farmers, more than 70 per cent of the total farmers have shifted from modern agriculture to ecological agriculture, in order to maintain soil fertility. According to them, by using cowdung, ash, farm yard manure soil fertility can be maintained for many years. Health is one of the important factors influencing the paddy farmers to shift from modern agriculture to ecological agriculture. According to these farmers ecological food has positive impact on health and to be sure of the supply of organic food, they shifted to ecological agriculture. Paddy farmers also said that ecological agriculture creates more employment compared to modern agriculture. Survey results have shown that employment in ecological agriculture is more by 9 mandays/acre compared to modern agriculture. More than 50 per cent of the total farmers have shifted from modern agriculture to ecological agric ulture due to employment. Cost of cultivation is high in ecological agriculture compared to modern agriculture, because initially more investment is required in ecological agriculture. After completion of transition (5 years) gradually cost is decreased in ecological agriculture. Nearly 65 per cent of the ecological paddy farmers said that they shifted due to higher and stable yield that they are expected under ecological agriculture. The results support this and yield under ecological farm is more by 1 quintal per acre. In the case of sugarcane, 82.1 per cent of the total farmers have shifted from modern agriculture to ecological agriculture because they believe that it leads to healthy life. More than 65 per cent of the total farmers have transformed from modern agriculture to ecological agriculture due to soil fertility maintenance and environmental factors like pollution control, sustainability, water management etc. Sugarcane farmers also opined that ecological agriculture creates more employment compared to modern agriculture. Only 36 per cent of the farmers shifted because they think that cost of cultivation is low under ecological agriculture. In the case of paddy more shifts took place due to ecological factors than economic factors. The main reasons for transition can be found in environmental sustainability as well as health and soil fertility management. Paddy and sugarcane farmers mainly reported that cost of inputs like chemical fertilizers and pesticides are highly expensive. The results clearly show that the awareness about environmental impact of modern agriculture is the main reason for the farmers to shift to ecological agriculture. Conclusion The over all analysis of the study highlights that ecological agriculture is economically profitable compared to modern agriculture. It provides greater returns to the growers at present and ensures the sustainability of these returns in future by protecting the fertility of the soil and enhancing the quality of environment and conserve natural resources. Farm Business Income from ecological agriculture is more due to higher yield and price. It is mainly due to the purchase of organic manure by the growers. Efforts should be made to encourage farmers to keep livestock to produce on farm organic inputs in order to reduce the cost of organic manures. The main reason for transition from modern agriculture to ecological agriculture was the awareness about environment and health. This awareness is limited only to those who are educated. Efforts should be made to create awareness about two aspects of ecological farming i.e., awareness about environmental consequences of ecological farming and economics of ecological agriculture. References: CharjanY.D and T.N Hajare (2002), Ecological Agriculture Solves the Problems of Indian Agriculture, Kisan World, l29 (7), pp. 43-4. Dhawan AS and MS. Deshmukh 92005), Organic Farming in Relation to Environment Pollution, Kisan World, 32(2) February 2005, Pp: 27-28. Saravanane M et al (2007) Ã¢â¬Å"Organic Production SystemÃ¢â¬ Kisan World, 34 (03), Pp. 45 Ã¢â¬â 47, March 2007 Thakur and Sharma KD (2005), Organic Farming for Sustainable Agriculture and Meeting the Challenges of Food Security in 21st Century: An Economic Analysis, Indian Journal of Agriculture Economics, 60 (2), April-June 2005, Pp: 205-219. 1 [*] Senior Research Scholar, Department of Studies in Economics and Cooperation, University of Mysore, Mysore, Email: [emailprotected] [**] Reader, Department of Studies in Economics and Cooperation, University of Mysore, Mysore, Email: [emailprotected].
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Analysis of Open Source Content Management Systems Chapter 1 Introduction Background Although most of us take information for granted, good information is easy to come by. Lets investigate the difference between data and information, the characteristics of good information and the process of transforming data into useful information. To make sound decisions managers need reliable, accurate data that can be transformed into information. Organisations use many methods to collect data , including survey ,interviews, documents reading and even brain-wave monitoring. Sophisticated voice activated technology is available that allows people to store data merely by speaking into a computer. Today it is widely recognized that information systems knowledge is essential for managers because most organisations need information systems to survive and prosper. Information systems can help companies to extend reach to faraway location, offer new product and services, reshape jobs and work flows, and perhaps profoundly change the way they conduct business. The past decade has seen a rigorous change in the way we understand and use Information Technology within a business context. Advancements in the field of research and development has led to technologies such as; distributed computing, content management, data mining and processing, all of which fulfil a range of business needs. The move from localised computing platforms to distributed web technologies has been caused by, among other factors, the take-up of commodity computer and network components based on faster hardware and sophisticated software. About The Project The objective of this report is to analyse and compare a specific category of open source content management systems, within the context of small to medium businesses; this specific category is about web portals. The project aims to create a comprehensive comparison which deals with the specific requirements of small to medium businesses only. Thus, providing a clear understanding of the current trends within the commercial sector and the open source community. This report involves a comparison between existing open source, web portal content management systems. The comparison is based on a set of business requirements which represent the needs of small to medium businesses, which aims to find an open source solution as an alternative to commercial solutions. Due to the nature of this subject, this report assumes that the reader has some understanding about Information Technology. Chapter 2 Content Management Content From A Business Perspective Computers where initially created to perform time-consuming or complex mathematical computations and in many ways replace human labour. Boiko (2001) describes the computer model as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"If you can reduce a problem to a series of simple mechanical operations on numbers and logical entities (entities that are either true of false), it is amenable to solution by a computerÃ¢â¬ . At their lowest level, computers process data. The data processed by computers at a low level is not immediately readable or understandable, because it is made to be understood by the computer only. This data is used to perform a set of operations as described above. The fact that computers are data-processing machines makes it hard to process content, which by definition is not just data. Technology has evolved over the years and computers are now required to perform computations on content while retaining their human meaning. Electronic Commerce ,Electronic Business, And Digital Relationship The changes we have just described represent new ways of conducting business electronically both inside and outside the farm that can ultimately result in the creation of digital firms. Increasingly, the internet is providing the underlying technology for these changes. The internet can link thousands of organisations into a single network creating the foundation for a vast digital marketplace. A digital market is an information system that links together many buyers and sellers to exchange information, products, services and payments. Through computers and networks, these systems function like electronic intermediaries, with lowered cost for typical marketplace transactions such as matching buyers and sellers establishing prices ordering goods and paying bills. Buyers sellers can complete purchase and sale transactions digitally regardless of their location. New Opportunities With Technology Although information systems are creating many exciting opportunities for both businesses and individuals, they are also a source of new problems, issues and challenges for managers. In this course we will learn about both the challenges and opportunities information systems pose and we will be able to use information technology to enrich our learning experience. New technologies open up far more possibilities for reproducing previously published work online than we can afford to pursue, so we have to pick and choose the most useful ones for you, our audience. The Journal would like to gather and benefit from all of the ideas, suggestions, and hard work that readers are willing to provide. Constructive technology assessment (CTA) differs from other technology assessment methods by emphasizing implementation and development of new technologies over a simple assessment of those technologies potential impact. CTA, which was developed in Denmark and the Netherlands, seeks to moderate the impact of potentially damaging technologies while taking full advantage of beneficial technologies. Nowadays, the development of integrated circuit (IC) industry and scientific researchers rely more and more on the nanofabrication technologies. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has been included on the ITRS lithography roadmap for 32nm, 22nm and 16nm nodes. However, there are numerous other applications for NIL. This patterning technique shows great potential in fabrication of nanostructures at all. Metadata Encapsulation Of Content Processing such content will produce the required results for the human user. Those results will contain an abstract meaning that can only be interpreted by a human user. Defining data with information and making it into content is a process similar to the operations performed in every day situations. For example, searching for a book in a library or finding a movie in a video store. Both operations have the similarity of providing information about other information. A library, offers a computerised search engine that searches through categories of Ã¢â¬Å"authorÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"titleÃ¢â¬ , while the video store may search for Ã¢â¬Å"actorÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"year of releaseÃ¢â¬ . Therefore, a room full of books may be seen as a pile of data, while the same room with a categorised search engine may be seen as real content. The books become more than just data, because they have been given a description. The method of content description is called metadata. Metadata is data about data, which defines the human aspect of content. Metadata first appeared on the web when the immense amount of data over the internet became impossible to process or to even understand. Some of the leading technologies and standards on metadata are seen. Metadata technologies are themselves based on published internet standards. This method of creating a new standard based on another existing standard is very useful within businesses in order to make the exchange of content as smooth as possible. The leading standard technologies are eXtensible Markup Language (XML), which defines the Resource Description Framework (RDF) syntax as recommended by the W3C. Building on top of metadata and XML, are a number of advanced technologies and project. Concurrent Changes Management Project completion skew occurs once the team has grown into a substantial number of developers, at which point they are all working on different parts of the project, possibly in small groups. These small groups usually work on diverse activities separated from each other or sometimes in conjunction. As a result, each group will be developing, integrating and testing their work separately, before committing their work into the complete project. These groups will also be working under different schedules. This implies that a group may be starting its work while another is getting ready to commit theirs . Structure Of The Comparison Each business has its own set of requirements for a CMS solution, which depend on various parameters such as; the size of the business, field of operation, type of managed data and target customers. It is highly unlikely that a single product will have all the required functionality. As a result, this report tries to identify potential products which are scalable and expandable. Applications Data repository Deployment Integration Revision control User interface User management Workflow Applications are about general functionality which compliment the entire CMS solution. Availability of the development API allows developers to expand the existing functionality and add custom processes per business requirements. Marketing and advertising features allow the website to display banner advertising or offer opt-in permission marketing forms. Localisation and multi-language support for all documents and processes. Time-based event functions, like scheduling. Site-wide searching engine which allows transparent searches over different content. Finally, e-commerce functionality which allows the system to perform online transactions. Data repository is about flexibility in content storage. Information is an asset to every business, proper management of the data storage can be an advantage. A CMS solution may use multiple storage methods, including a Relational DataBase Management System (RDBMS) and Network File System (NFS) or other file system based storage. Apart from the storage medium, it is also important to use a standards compliant storage format such as XML. In particular, XML provides transformation services and content validation along with the split between content, format and business logic. Deployment can be one of the most important features from a business per-spective. Medium to large scale systems use multiple servers for fault tolerance and improved availability. A CMS products ability to scale through multiple servers gives the extra advantage for reliability. Replication is also an issue, the flow of updates that go from testing into production should be able to replicate reliably and with roll back support, as discussed in section Finally, multiple output formats can increase the target audience, for example; by providing mobile phone access via SMS or WAP. Integration deals with the every day management of the system. Metadata management via content classification systems which enable arbitrary data to become useful information assets for the business. Information can be used along with 3rd party web applications, such as log analysers and spam filters. Data conversion, allows users to publish or submit data in different format from the one used to publish their data, for example PDF to HTML conversion. Integration is also about compliance with the internet standards published by the W3C such as; HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.0/1.1. Based on those standards are the requirements for compliance with the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 chapter 50 (HMSO 1995) which came into effect in the United Kingdom. This Act enforces new rules for websites to create content which is accessible by disabled people. Standards compliance means that a CMS product must be able to generate code that is compliant with the Web Accessibility Initiative guidelines. Revision control, as seen in section 2.3.1, is about management of changes, while keeping track of known milestones and working versions of the entire web site development and content. Revision control allows users to keep track of changes, while protecting them against overlapping changes by other users. Roll back functionality gives the user a chance to return to a known working copy of data, which also makes it easy to compare changes over time. User interface is not just about the client Ã¢â¬Å"visualÃ¢â¬ interface. The user interface is a collection of interface features which help the user or administrator to effectively manage the system. Interface tools enhance the control of processes, some of these tools are; HTML forms, WYSIWYG content editor and document linking. The user interface should provide the choice between high and low level editing, either edit the code directly, or provide a suitable interface which generates the required code. User management is about access and control of the system. The system should allow for 3rd party authentication, such as; SQL database, LDAP, NIS/YP, PAM. In addition, the interface should provide adequate user management control, for example; system-wide user modification. Workflow is a collaboration process for the development and maintenance of business assets which involve steps such as; varied information types, cross departmental staff and functions based on a submit/review/approve steps. As seen in section 2.3.4, workflow is important to clearly define processes which perform specific functions, with various dependencies between them. These functions automate routing of information, review and finally approve changes. Chapter 3 Open Source Software Free Software This report deals with certain types of free software; open source content management systems. Therefore, it is very important to define the term free software, because the concept itself is ambiguous. A wide range of software is distributed as Ã¢â¬Å"freeÃ¢â¬ because it does not cost anything to download or use. However the source code is not made available or the software is distributed with a restrictive license. Binary or source code distributions could be copyrighted and covered by a license agreement, which could hold a range of few to extreme restrictions, like a disclaimer of reliability. Ã¢â¬Å"Free softwareÃ¢â¬ is a matter of liberty, not price. The Open Source Model The freedom to run the program, for any purpose. The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it to your needs. Access to the source code is a precondition for this. The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbour. The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits. Access to the source code is a precondition for this. Requirements of free software Restrictions on these Ã¢â¬Ëfree software come with licenses which; prohibit its use or require a fee for commercial user, prohibit or limit redistribution, including redistributing modified versions. Some licenses also require redistribution of derived works to use the same license as the original product or even release the modified source code. A few licenses also discriminate against individuals or groups. The term free software is widely used in the Information Technology industry. However, its ambiguity hampers communication due to arguments over whether a particular piece of software is Ã¢â¬Ëfree or not (OSI 2004). lists the rules which define the term Ã¢â¬Å"free softwareÃ¢â¬ as published by the FSF (2004). Banner Advertising Banner advertising is on a pay-per-view basis, according to the following rates: Home Page Other Pages Number of Views Cost ($US) Cost ($US) 4,000 $100 $50 10,000 $200 $100 25,000 $400 $200 75,000 $1000 $500 175,000 $2000 $1000 400,000 $4000 $2000 Either a large (46860 pixels) banner advertisement strategically placed at the top of every page on the site (or a selection of pages, at your choice), or a 120600 pixel Ã¢â¬Å"skyscraperÃ¢â¬ banner ad in the left hand column of every page on the site (or a selection of pages, at your choice). We can also arrange text only advertisements. A hotlink to your web site (or email address) when prospective buyers click on the ad Full on-line statistical information, by day and overall, on the number of ad exposures, and the click-through ratio for your ad We can customize a banner advertising program that targets those visitors that you wish to be exposed to by only displaying your advertisement on those selected pages on the site that best suits your product or service. We also have the capability to target ads by geographical location or by keywords. We can accept banner ads in most graphic formats, including rich media formats such as Flash. On all pages, (except where an exclusive advertising arrangement is in place, subject to negotiation) banner ads are placed on rotation with other banner advertisements. Current site statistics indicate that each visitor to the site visits approximately 5 pages per visit, so advertising is limited to a maximum of 5 advertisers on each page each with equal probability of exposure on the page. Newsletter Sponsorship/Advertising Advertising and Sponsorship opportunities our free monthly newsletter on topics of interest to Maintenance professionals around the globe. This newsletter is issued via plain text e-mail to an opt-in subscriber base numbering in the thousands, with a web version also published. Two advertising slots are currently permitted within each newsletter, and the advertisement consists of: Four lines of text in the e-mail version of the newsletter, and Four lines of text plus a banner advertisement in the web-based version of the newsletter The banner advertisement comes with full on-line, real-time statistical reporting, as for site banner advertisements (detailed above) Advertising rates depend on the number of subscribers to the newsletter. For more information on current rates, subscribers and the availability of space in future newsletters. Direct Mail To Our Opt-In Mailing List In addition to our opt-in subscriber base for the M-News newsletter, we have a further opt-in list of contacts who have expressed interest in receiving occasional e-mails containing information about maintenance-related products and services. We can issue an email to members of this list on your behalf promoting your products or services. 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Free Redistribution Ã¢â¬Å"The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources. The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such saleÃ¢â¬ (OSI 2004). By ensuring free redistribution, open source software is not hampered by short-term gains which would affect real long-term sales from customised versions of the software or contracted support and maintenance. Thus, a supplier may generate copies of the software and sell them or give them away without paying anyone for that privilege. As a result, many open source software can be bought on CD or DVD by paying for the cost of the medium only, since the supplier is not adding any extra costs. Ã¢â¬Å"The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form. Where some form of a product is THE OPEN SOURCE MODEL not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicised means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction costpreferably, downloading via the Internet without charge. The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program. Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed. Intermediate forms such as the output of a preprocessor or translator are not allowedÃ¢â¬ (OSI 2004). To evolve and expand open source software, the source code must be available and in a modifiable state. The original or modified source code is then provided along with the software and any derived works, in order to ensure future repair or modifications. Ã¢â¬Å"The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original softwareÃ¢â¬ (OSI 2004). Future software updates and maintenance of the distributed source code, as seen in section 3.2.2, has no real use if the modified software cannot be distributed. Therefore, the ability to simply modify the source code is not enough to support independent peer review and rapid evolutionary selection. Instead, it should be possible to redistribute the modified software along with the modified source code. Redistributed software can use the same license terms as the original software. Although this is not a requirement to do so but an option at the hands of the distributor. This requirement means; a license may not allow re-licensing or modification of its terms, or may allow re-licensing and sub-licensing of derived works. Chapter 4 Content Management Systems CMS Categories Content Management Systems (CMS) are not just a product or a technology. CMS is a generic term which defines a wide range of processes which underpin the Ã¢â¬Å"next-generationÃ¢â¬ of medium to large-scale websites (Browning Lowndes 2001). A content management process; creates, stores, modifies, retrieves and displays data, or content, as seen in chapter 2. The applications of CMS cannot be clearly defined. Even though a CMS is range of processes and managed software, the boundaries of the CMS space are blurred. The area covered by CMS overlaps with a wide range of traditional software systems, as seen in figure 4.1. As a result of this overlap of functionality, an intranet groupware system or virtual learning system can easily be implemented via the same CMS (Browning Lowndes 2001). CMS have no single interface or implementation, they are effectively designed on the requirements of each business. The implementations of CMS differ from web based to integrated server-side applications. Requirements Prerequisites Document management systems Knowledge management systems Enterprise application integration systems E-commerce solutions Web portals CMS categories implementations vary from PHP, Perl and Python. Integrated application server implementations use popular languages like Java 2 Enterprise Edition and C++. Figure 4.2 shows a visual interpretation of the structure of a typical CMS. This report does not deal with the application or use of CMS, for example; document management or virtual learning. Instead, this report takes a comparative approach to web portals only, based on their functionality from a business perspective. Web portals are websites which act as a main Ã¢â¬Å"point of entryÃ¢â¬ for users. They offer a range of services, for example; news section, search engine and web catalogue. Web portals are CMS solutions which offer content over the web, thus they may seem limited in functionality over traditional applications. To the contrary, due to the pervasive nature of the internet, the web has become the preferred method for content delivery (Browning Lowndes 2001). Requirements Prerequisites Although requirements on software packages vary between businesses, they still have certain common requirements. The objective of this report is to compare the widest possible selection of open source content management systems, which can be used by businesses. The most suitable CMS solutions Requirements Prerequisites Applications Deployment Workflow Versioning Integration Content User Management Data Repository Integration Authentication Services Syndication Management Link Interface User Data Repository Relational are selected based on a set of clearly defined requirements, all others have been rejected. Figure 4.3 lists these requirements. All the systems compared within this report are required to be licensed by an OSI-approved open source license, as defined in chapter 3. Open source software is widely recognised for its standards compliance, which is vital for businesses. For example, creating a website which uses proprietary data structures will hinder future expansion to new systems or technologies due to incompatibilities. Open source software are more likely to follow standards like the W3C Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML) or XML specifications while ensuring they can interact with each other. Commercial software tend to be incompatible with each other in order to keep the customer hooked to a specific technology or supplier. Compatibility with the Apache HTTP server is vital. The Apache HTTP server is the most widely used web server on the internet. Netcraft (2004) reports that more than 67% of the websites on the internet are using Apache, with 4 million new hostnames growth in the first half of 2004. Chapter 5 Planning to implement MIS in the organisation: Information System An information system is a set of interrelated components that collect, process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organisation. In addition to support decision making, coordination, and control, information system may also help managers and workers analyze problems and visualize complex subjects and create new products. Information systems contain information about significant people, place and things within the organisation or in the environment surrounding its. By information we mean data that have been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to human beings. Data is contrast are streams of raw facts representing events occurring in organisation or physical environment before they have been organised and arranged into a form that people can understand and use. Theres more growth and innovation in computing and ICT than in any other area of business. The individuals and organisations best equipped to respond to the challenge of rapidly changing technologies are those with the vision to ensure that their skills and knowledge are kept current and set in a broad educational context. Computing and ICT professionals with a strong skill set are much in demand today, and enrolling on a postgraduate computing course with the OU will keep you at the forefront of this influential discipline. Our Postgraduate Computing and ICT courses provide you with the range of innovative, practice-based courses and qualifications that you need to develop your career. We offer several certificates, diplomas and masters degrees in computing and ICT, and you can choose to study topics such as software development and management, project management, computer forensics, information security, communication technologies and networks. You dont need to have a first degree to register for a course, but you do need either previous study to the equivalent of HND level in the UK, or practical experience, which will enable study at postgraduate level. Management Data Resources Implementing a database requires widespread organisation change in the role of information, the allocation of power at senior levels, the ownership and sharing of information, patterns of organisational agreement. A database management system challenges the existing power arrangements in an organisation and for that reason often generates political resistance. In a traditional file environment each department constructed files and programs to fulfill its specific needs. Now with a database files and programs must be built that take into account the full organisations interest in data. Moving database environment can be a costly long term process,. Electronic Business, Electronic Commerce Throughout this edition we emphasize the benefits of integrating information across the enterprise, creating an information technology infrastructure in which information can be flow seamlessly from one part of the organisation to another and from the organisation to its customers, suppliers, and business partners. The emerging digital firm require this level of information integration and companies increasingly depend on such an infrastructure today to remain efficient and competitive. Internet technology has emerged as the key enabling technology for this digital integration. Chapter 6 Conclusion The internet has been introduced major changes in the way companies conduct business. It has created a dramatic drop in the cost of developing, sending and storing information while making that information more widely available. Millions of people can exchange massive amounts of information directly, instantly, for free. These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. Reference Linux (2004), The linux kernel archives. Last access: 20-4-2004. URL: http://www.kernel.org Maglio, P. Farrell, S. (2000), Liveinfo: Adapting web experience by customization and annotation, in Ã¢â¬ËProceedings of the 1st International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-based Systems. Michelinakis, D. (2003), SotonOne project, Masters thesis, University of Southampton, Department of Electronics and Computer Science. MozillaFoundation (2004), The mozilla browser. Last
Saturday, July 20, 2019
World War II and American Racism The United States was a divided nation at the time of World War II. Divided by race and racism. This Division had been much greater in the past with the institution of slavery. As the years went by the those beliefs did deteriorate slowly, but they were still present during the years of World War II. This division was lived out in two forms, legislation and social behavior. The legislation came in the form of the Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ laws. The belief that some people were naturally superior and others inferior, scientific racism, was the accepted belief of the time These cultural traits were waning. After World War II ended they would decline even more rapidly. In the early days of World War II the everyday people of this country already sensed the great change to come. Interviews taken from the Library of Congress, in the collection labeled Ã¢â¬Å"After the Day of Infamy,Ã¢â¬ offer a window into the past. Into the America that existed in the early days after the attack on Pearl Harbor and the U.S. entrance into the war. Inside the collection, the pulse of the nation is revealed. Ordinary people, some of whom do not reveal their names, are given a chance to record their opinion of the war, the Japanese people, and the race relations within the union. In these open letters to the president and the Ã¢â¬Å"Man on the StreetÃ¢â¬ interviews, the American public reveals their prejudices and their concerns in the most candid of fashion. American society, like that of Germany, was tainted with racial bigotry and prejudice. The Japanese were thought of as especially treacherous people for the attack on Pearl Harbor. The treachery was obviously thought to reside in ... ... it legal for non-white immigrant to become naturalized citizens. Many of those Japanese born immigrants who were held in concentration camps could now apply for citizenship status. It would take many years for African-Americans to acquire the freedoms that they had fought for over seas. Those efforts were accelerated by the war and the prosperity that it brought. Eventually Jim Crow would fall in the south and African-Americans would take their struggle to every part of the nation. It was never an over night sensation. The civil rights movement was one long continuous effort that occurred before and after World War II. The process has been a long one and still continues.  After the Day of Infamy: Ã¢â¬Å"Man on the StreetÃ¢â¬ Interviews Following the Attack on Pearl Harbor, U.S. Library of Congress, American Folk Life Center
Friday, July 19, 2019
If one were to identify a time in life when the recognition of a homosexual identity would be most disruptive, adolescence would be at the top of the list. According to psychologist Erik Erikson, adolescence is a time of identity versus confusion. During adolescence, children are exploring their independence and developing a sense of self. Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will insecure and confused about themselves and the future (Crain, 2000). The successful completion of these steps can be impeded by identifying one self as a sexual minority. Andrew Sullivan articulates his experience as a homosexual teen in his essay Ã¢â¬Å"What Is A Homosexual?Ã¢â¬ Homosexual adolescents learn from an early age that Ã¢â¬Å"survival depends on self-concealment (Sullivan, 2008).Ã¢â¬ Sullivan illustrates the internal struggle of the homosexual adolescent with a powerful statement, stating Ã¢â¬Å"...that which would give him the most meaning is most likely to destroy him in the eyes of others; that the condition of his friendships is the subjugation of himself (Sullivan, 2008).Ã¢â¬ The use of the word destroy is a haunting acknowledgement to the bullying that occurs throughout our schools and social media sites. The notion that homosexual adolescents donÃ¢â¬â¢t simply keep his or her sexual orientation private, but suppress this aspect of his or her being is detrimental to developing a strong sense of self. SullivanÃ¢â¬â¢s description of the experience of growing up as someone Ã¢â¬Å"profoundly different in emotional and psychological makeupÃ¢â¬ reiterates how challenging it is for... ...elors. Journal of Counseling and Development, 36-40. Crain, W. C. (2000). Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications. Saddle River: Prentice-Hall. Elias, T. D. (2000, January 24). Gays Advance in California. Insight on the News. Knickerbocker, B. (2000, September 11). Election Spotlights Battle Over Gay Rights. The Christian Science Monitor. Raspberry, W. (2000, May 1). Why Not Encourage Monogamy? The Washington Post. Soule, S. A. (2004). Going to the Chapel? Same Sex Marriage Bans in the United States. Social Problems, 453-477. Teicher, S. A. (1999, July 19). Debate Heats up over same sex marriages. The Christian Science Monitor. Teicher, S. A. (1999, December 22). Ruling will stir states on same sex marriages. The Christian Science Monitor. Wood, D. B. (2000, March 2). Protecting marriage or marginalizing homosexuals? The Christian Science Monitor. Homosexual Adolescents Essay -- Homosexuality If one were to identify a time in life when the recognition of a homosexual identity would be most disruptive, adolescence would be at the top of the list. According to psychologist Erik Erikson, adolescence is a time of identity versus confusion. During adolescence, children are exploring their independence and developing a sense of self. Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will insecure and confused about themselves and the future (Crain, 2000). The successful completion of these steps can be impeded by identifying one self as a sexual minority. Andrew Sullivan articulates his experience as a homosexual teen in his essay Ã¢â¬Å"What Is A Homosexual?Ã¢â¬ Homosexual adolescents learn from an early age that Ã¢â¬Å"survival depends on self-concealment (Sullivan, 2008).Ã¢â¬ Sullivan illustrates the internal struggle of the homosexual adolescent with a powerful statement, stating Ã¢â¬Å"...that which would give him the most meaning is most likely to destroy him in the eyes of others; that the condition of his friendships is the subjugation of himself (Sullivan, 2008).Ã¢â¬ The use of the word destroy is a haunting acknowledgement to the bullying that occurs throughout our schools and social media sites. The notion that homosexual adolescents donÃ¢â¬â¢t simply keep his or her sexual orientation private, but suppress this aspect of his or her being is detrimental to developing a strong sense of self. SullivanÃ¢â¬â¢s description of the experience of growing up as someone Ã¢â¬Å"profoundly different in emotional and psychological makeupÃ¢â¬ reiterates how challenging it is for... ...elors. Journal of Counseling and Development, 36-40. Crain, W. C. (2000). Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications. Saddle River: Prentice-Hall. Elias, T. D. (2000, January 24). Gays Advance in California. Insight on the News. Knickerbocker, B. (2000, September 11). Election Spotlights Battle Over Gay Rights. The Christian Science Monitor. Raspberry, W. (2000, May 1). Why Not Encourage Monogamy? The Washington Post. Soule, S. A. (2004). Going to the Chapel? Same Sex Marriage Bans in the United States. Social Problems, 453-477. Teicher, S. A. (1999, July 19). Debate Heats up over same sex marriages. The Christian Science Monitor. Teicher, S. A. (1999, December 22). Ruling will stir states on same sex marriages. The Christian Science Monitor. Wood, D. B. (2000, March 2). Protecting marriage or marginalizing homosexuals? The Christian Science Monitor.
The latter half of the twentieth century was host to the greatest and most widespread advancements in environmental awareness in human history. It was during this time that people began to consider the effects of their polluting cars and their wasteful habits. People began to realize that something must be done to curb humansÃ¢â¬â¢ negative impacts on their surroundings and thus the environmental movement was born. One of the most important factors that resulted from this expansion of environmental consciousness occurring over the last several decades has been the protection of endangered species. Much has been done in the legal world to ensure the continued longevity of our planetÃ¢â¬â¢s diversity, including two major policies: CITES and the Endangered Species Act. Each of these policies has approached the welfare of endangered species in a different way, with varying degrees of success. Each strategy will be summarized and analyzed, beginning with the CITES treaty, as it was enacted before the Endangered Species Act. However, before examining the function and effectiveness of each strategy, it is important to understand the history behind each one of them. In 1966, Congress passed the Endangered Species Preservation Act, a piece of legislation designed to provide limited protection to a list of native animal species. The Departments of Interior, Agriculture, and Defense were responsible for the protection of these species and the preservation of their habitats. It also allotted land to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to help maintain these natural habitats. In 1969, the Act was amended because further protection was necessary. With the threat of worldwide extinction, the amendment called for an international meeting and cha... ...es rather than the officials that manage them, but all things considered, these two policies go a long way to improving the problem of human-caused extinction. Works Cited Doremus, Holly, and Joel E. Pagel. "Why Listing May Be Forever: Perspectives on Delisting Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act." Conservation Biology, Vol. 15, No. 5 (Oct. 2001): 1258-68. Hemley, Ginette. "CITES: How Useful a Tool For Wildlife Conservation?" Wildlife Society Bulletin, Vol. 23, No. 4, Changes and Challenges in the Wildlife Profession (Winter, 1995): 635-39. "History and Evolution of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Including its Relationship to CITES." Fish and Wildlife Service. 1 May 2008. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2 Dec. 2008 . Reibstein, Rick. "Endangered Species Act." CAS GE 521, Boston, MA. 19 Nov. 2008. Endangered Species Legislation Essay -- CITES, Endangered Species Act The latter half of the twentieth century was host to the greatest and most widespread advancements in environmental awareness in human history. It was during this time that people began to consider the effects of their polluting cars and their wasteful habits. People began to realize that something must be done to curb humansÃ¢â¬â¢ negative impacts on their surroundings and thus the environmental movement was born. One of the most important factors that resulted from this expansion of environmental consciousness occurring over the last several decades has been the protection of endangered species. Much has been done in the legal world to ensure the continued longevity of our planetÃ¢â¬â¢s diversity, including two major policies: CITES and the Endangered Species Act. Each of these policies has approached the welfare of endangered species in a different way, with varying degrees of success. Each strategy will be summarized and analyzed, beginning with the CITES treaty, as it was enacted before the Endangered Species Act. However, before examining the function and effectiveness of each strategy, it is important to understand the history behind each one of them. In 1966, Congress passed the Endangered Species Preservation Act, a piece of legislation designed to provide limited protection to a list of native animal species. The Departments of Interior, Agriculture, and Defense were responsible for the protection of these species and the preservation of their habitats. It also allotted land to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to help maintain these natural habitats. In 1969, the Act was amended because further protection was necessary. With the threat of worldwide extinction, the amendment called for an international meeting and cha... ...es rather than the officials that manage them, but all things considered, these two policies go a long way to improving the problem of human-caused extinction. Works Cited Doremus, Holly, and Joel E. Pagel. "Why Listing May Be Forever: Perspectives on Delisting Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act." Conservation Biology, Vol. 15, No. 5 (Oct. 2001): 1258-68. Hemley, Ginette. "CITES: How Useful a Tool For Wildlife Conservation?" Wildlife Society Bulletin, Vol. 23, No. 4, Changes and Challenges in the Wildlife Profession (Winter, 1995): 635-39. "History and Evolution of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Including its Relationship to CITES." Fish and Wildlife Service. 1 May 2008. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2 Dec. 2008 . Reibstein, Rick. "Endangered Species Act." CAS GE 521, Boston, MA. 19 Nov. 2008.