Monday, September 30, 2019
The first proposal is issuing the new shares to publics at $38, but right now the commission fee is $3, and the market price is $39, but the investment banker believe that the price will drop to $38 and the commission fee is $2 per share subscribed. To capitalize exact millions dollar, Art Deco reproductions need to issue 556,000 new shares in total. And the stock price will drop slightly. And the company need to pay the investment banker $1 , 112,000 for the commission fees. There are some advantages selling shares to public. The stock price will not drop so much, compare with others proposal.The less new shares issued, the less share dilution, and one member of the Board of Directors think this proposal will allow for greater distribution of the stock throughout the market. This proposal also has some disadvantages. The commission fees are the highest, compare with other proposal in the circumstances of all shares are subscribed. Issuing new shares to public will dilute the proport ional ownership of the company. It also will dilute the voting right of the current shareholders. It also will give much more voting right to the outsiders. Issuing shares to public might also hurt the current shareholders' loyalty.There also some potential risk the company need to face in this proposal. The first one is the fluctuations of the market price, if the market price goes down under $38, the new issue shares cannot sold and it had to decrease to the market price, and the commission fees is $2 per share, which meaner the company cannot capitalized enough money and need to issue more shares and pay more commission fees to get the millions capitalize target. The proposal 2 is the company offer rights to current shareholders and gives them at $36 per share, this price is lower than the current arrest price $39 per shares, but the commission fee will be $1. 5 per share for every share subscribed, and any remain shares will purchased by Hugh ; Company, which will charge inscrib ed share $3 per share. In this proposal, assuming all the shares subscribed. The company need to issue minimum 576,000 shares to meet the $million capitalized goal. And the company will pay $720,000 as the commission fee. And each rights worth $0. 48, when the rights was generated from the old shares, over 60% of the stock holders will be expected to sell their rights to outsiders anyways. The advantage of proposal 2 is very obviously.The high subscription price can lead to less amount of dilution of earning per shares and still give loyal stockholders a chance to keep their equity positions at a discount. It also will not harm the shareholder's interest so much, and will not dilute too much voting power to outsiders. And it will not hurt the ownership of the current stock holder and protect their rights The disadvantage of proposal 2 is very clear, the high commission fee is still the problem, and in this high offering price, the current stockholder might not have enough cash to re invest the company. There are some potential risks in this reports as well.The high risk of unfavorable market price fluctuations, and if the stock price drops to $36, the cost of flotation will go up dramatically. And it also has a risk of dilute the current shareholder's ownerships' proportion. The cheap right but high stock price might not attractive enough to the outsiders who want to invest in this company. The proposal 3 offers a right at $32 per share and the underwriting cost is 0. 25 per share, and $3 per share taken by the investment banker. In this proposal, if all the shares are subscribed, company need to issue 640,000 shares and says total $480,000 commission fees.In this proposal each right worth $1. 23 In this proposal, the advantages are lower commission fee compare with the proposal 1 and 2, and it will increase the current stockholders' loyalty if they are in the management team. And it also will protect the current stockholder's right, because they are offered be fore outsiders and don't need to pay the price of the rights to buy the shares. And it also provides an adequate margin of safety against downward market price fluctuations, protects the stockholders from the excessive equity dilution entailed in rapports 4 and 5, and give an appealing purchase discount.The disadvantage in proposal 3 is much more likely as the proposal 2, the proposal g's offer price still too high to afford, because only a small percentage of stockholders might have immediate funds available for reinvestment, and leave the large percentage of stockholders no choice but to sell their rights. The more shares issue the more earnings will be diluted. The risk is about the flotation cost will highly increase because most of investors' choice to sell their rights and it probably dilute the hardcover's ownership proportion.The proposal 4 is company offer a right to stock holder at $20 per share and the underwriting cost will be 0. Pepper share and it the cost of $3 per ea ch share if the investment banker take the remain shares. Assuming all the shares are subscribed, the company will issue 1 to meet million goal, and it needs to pay $253,250 as the commissions fees. In this proposal each right worth $4. 80. In this proposal 4, the advantage is very low offer price, compare with the proposal 1 to 3, and the low commission fees, and the low offer price will eve wide range of shareholder to reinvest it, and it keep the shareholder's loyalty.And it will attract more outside investor to buy the rights and invest the company. It will not harm the company hard-earned reputation of the company's stock price. And the proposal 4 put the stock in a popular trading range, a low enough subscribed price, a low flotation cost, and a reasonable ex-rights stock price , which will attract a wide range of investor But the disadvantage of proposal 4 also very seriously, one is it will diluted the earnings per share greatly from $2. 58 to $1. 93. T is very seriously pro blem to the big stock holder, and the market price will also goes down, which will harm the stock holder's worth if they don't exercise their rights. The risk still exists in this proposal, such as the ownership proportion dilute, voting right diluted. Proposal 5 gives shareholders rights to buy shares at $5 per shares, and there is no commission fee and all the shares will be taken. In this proposal, the company need to issue millions new shares and the value of the rights worth $19. 43. In this proposal, the advantage is very huge.Because of low share price, all the shares will e taken by the share holders. Second, there is no flotation cost, so it will save lot of money. But the advantage is very big as well. Because the lower price, the company will issue millions new shares, and we know the old outstanding shares only have millions right now, the equity, earnings per shares will be diluted greatly. The market price will be greatly drop downs as well. And the high value of right s will also challenge the stockholder's loyalty, the shareholder might sell the rights to outsiders and get this huge amount of money to invest other valuable company.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Ethics and Compliance FIN/370 Dec/14/2011 Ethics and Compliance Ã¢â¬Å"The mission of the Walt Disney Company is to be one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading producers and providers of entertainment and information. Using our portfolio of brands to differentiate our content, services and consumer products, we seek to develop the most creative, innovative and profitable entertainment experiences and related products in the worldÃ¢â¬ (According toÃ Ã¢â¬Å"Walt Disney Company Mission StatementÃ¢â¬ Ã (2011) Walt Disney began as a cartoon studio in the 1920s more than eight decades later is become a global corporation, and premier provider of quality family entertainment across America and around the world. What is the secret of the Walt Disney success? What are the rules and standard that make Walt Disney one of the biggest corporations in the world? Team C is going to discuss in this presentation the role of ethics compliance, the procedures and ethical behavior, the processes that the company uses to comply with the SEC regulations, and assess the financial performance of Walt Disney Company. DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ethics Since the beginning of the Walt Disney Company, ethics and compliance were very important for the entire organization and the Walt Disney Company of today the business standards and ethics are well written, and outlined in great detail. One of the reasons that the ethics and compliance standards were implemented is to ensure that the financial health of the company is not compromised by the misused of proprietary information to gain wealth illegally by the employees and the Board of Directors. All employees, managers and Directors are responsible for the financial health of the company and the best interest of the stockholders. Walt Disney Company used internal audits to ensure that all documentation and reports are accurate and also that all financial statements are in compliance with the general accounting practices. Each individual shall report and record all information, and complete Company document, accurately and honestly. These include, for example, time cards, reimbursable business expense requests, invoices, payroll records, safety records, business records and performance evaluations. Ã¢â¬ According toÃ Ã¢â¬Å"The Walt Disney CompanyÃ¢â¬ Ã (2011) Walt Disney Company has taken steps to ensure the ethical behavior in the organization, honesty is emphasized in the 2011 employee handbook, employee and upper management is accountable for all documentation are accurate. Evaluation of Disclosure control and procedures is a division of Walt Disney Company created to ensure that all employees, management, and Directors are following the ethical behavior established by the company and all financial reports files within the time mandated the General Accounting Practices. SEC Regulations The U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is in place to ensure that people who invest in publicly traded companies are protected, and that an efficient market is maintained in a fair and orderly fashion. The SEC has put in place several laws and rules to ensure that all investors have access to certain financial information before they buy stock in a company. This information is to remain public and readily available as long as the company is publicly traded. This means that the companies that are publicly traded must disclose this financial and other related information to anyone who requests it. Most companies have it posted online on their company website. These rules and laws ensure that investors are making informed decisions both before they buy stock and the entire time they are owners of company stock. Every year, the SEC finds companies who are in violation of the rules they have in place. Some companies will neglect their duty to post their annual financial data, or they may manipulate the data that they post. These violations can be viewed as insider trading, account fraud, or purposefully misleading company shareholders. Those companies who are found guilty of these types of offenses face serious fines against the company, and may include jail time for the people who manipulated the data. Disney is a publicly traded company, and as such, is expected to follow the rules and regulations set forth by the SEC. To comply with the regulations, Disney has made available all of the required annual financial statements on their company website. This website is separate from their storefront and theme park websites, and is dedicated to providing information about the Disney Corporation. This information includes the history of the company, investor relations, news releases, career information and job listings, and all of the required financial documents for investors. This way, any existing or potential investors can readily find information about the Disney Company that can be useful when trying to make sound decisions regarding buying or selling shares of Disney stock. DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s Financial Performance | | | The Walt Disney Company has several different operations: media networks, parks and resorts, studio entertainment, customer products and interactive media (Disney,Ã 2010). Based upon DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s 2009 and 2010 financial statements, we have calculated these key ratios: Key ratios:| 2010| 2009| Current ratio| 1. 11| 13. 31| Debt ratio| 0. 90| 0. 08| Average collection period| 55. 46| 49. 01| Return on equity| 0. 11| 0. 10| DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s revenues increased on 2010 compared to 2009. The overall liquidity of the company was better on 2009. On 2010 Disney acquired a bigger debt because of the current financial crisis. They took a bigger risk by doing this, but the risk turned into a positive outcome. Their collection period extended more in 2010, but this allow them to generate more businesses as suppose they would have kept a more extract payment regiment. Disney managed its resources efficiently, making a bigger profit on 2010 than they did on the previous year. Between all of their operations, some more popular than others, they could produce a higher profit margin on 2010. They also focused on the new trends such as technology, and product globalization, to stay competitive and profitable. Disney has adapted to the economy changes and taken risks in order to keep up with the competition and to maintain the business growth. 2009 was more stable and secure in every aspect, but the risk taken was necessary to increase the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profit. Conclusion The Disney Corporation is a company that has been publically traded for many years, and has grown to be one of the largest companies that is publically raded. The company strives to follow the regulations set forth by the SEC so that stockholders in the company can easily make sound decisions regarding their shares of stock. For 56 consecutive years, Disney has been able to pay dividends to their shareholders, even through the most recent financial recession. Most recently, the annually pa id dividend increased by 50% for the 2011 fiscal year. (Disney, 2011) Over the last couple of years, the company has shown steady growth, and could be considered a wise investment for someone interested in buying shares of stock. References The Walt Disney Company,Ã (2010). Retrieved from http://corporate. disney. go. com/investors/annual_reports. html The Walt Disney Company,Ã (2011). Retrieved from http://corporate. disney. go. com/corporate/complete_history. html The Walt Disney Company,Ã (2011). Retrieved from http://corporate. disney. go. com/news/corporate/2011/2011_1201_board_increases_annual_dividend. html Walt Disney Company Mission Statement,Ã (2011),Ã Retrieved from http://retailindustry. about. com/od/retailbestpractices/ig/Company-Mission-Statements/Walt-Disney-Mission-Statement. htm
Saturday, September 28, 2019
The Role of Sports in Popular Culture In 1972, President Richard Nixon signed Title XI of the Education Amendments (1972). This law simple states, Ã¢â¬Å"No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation, in be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. Ã¢â¬ (United States Department of Justice, Section 1681, 2013).In this assignment, Team B will address the issues of gender equality in sports. First, we will provide a brief history and its current state. Next, we will construct an argument about the influence the issue has on sports, its fans, athletes, and imagined communities. Following this, the team will make recommendations about how to consume and participate in sports responsibly, whether watching or playing. Gender Equality in Sports Gender equality in sports has a long and bittersweet history.This history is riddled with discrimination an d division of female athletes from elementary schools, high schools, collegiate, and the professional level. Nevertheless, there have been major accomplishments by female athletes. For example, in 1932 an American, Helene Madison was the first woman in the Olympics to swim 100 yards under a minute. In 1958, the Italian, Maria-Teresa became the first woman to compete in the European Grand Prix.A Moroccan woman named Nawal El Moutawakel became the first woman to win an Olympic medal in the 400-meter hurdles in the 1984 Olympics. Finally, Tegla Loroupe was the first Kenyan to win a marathon in 1994. Today, gender equality in sports has more to do with equal pay, media coverage, and promoting a female athlete as a part time model. The discrimination still exists because it denies the female athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s ability, talent, and skills and focuses on them as a sexy object.Case in point, Danica Patrick the first woman to win an IndyCar Series is often depicted as a swimsuit model rather t han a professional racecar driver. Nevertheless, the history of woman in sports will continue to thrived and achieve major accomplishments. Reference Title XI of the Education Amendments of 1972. (2013). Title XI of the Education Amendments of 1972. Retrieved from http://www. justice. gov/crt/about/cor/coord/ixlegal. php#I. Overview of Title IX: Interplay with Title VI, Section 504, Title VII, and the Fourteenth Amendment
Friday, September 27, 2019
Intervention and health impact analysis - Coursework Example Now with the 5-tier pyramid containing different forms of interventions to maintain life expectancy in countries that have developed, it will ensure the means of preventing diseases, reduction of spread level and improvement in economic growth to emerge. In addition, there is improved living standards, and with improved ways of treatments (Frieden, 2010). With the pyramid, it helps in addressing the determinants of socioeconomic at the bottom and public health interventions e.g. clean water with safe infrastructure, protective interventions like immunizations with long lasting importance with clinical care and lastly education counseling located at the top of the pyramid. The socioeconomic factors situated at the bottom of the 5-tier pyramid mostly explains on economic issues or health indicators like poverty eradication, advanced education for the benefit of the society (Frieden, 2010). With increase in wealth, roads are constructed increasing the number of vehicles and a result leads to pollutions and deaths from the accidents but all the problems can be prevented by the improved health like availability of clean water and sanitation making the bicycle and scooter rentals a better option. Additionally, with changes in the context, it motivates health decisions regardless of education, provision of service, income, and many other factors. On the contrary, people who use cabs and other fuelled countries with lack of these are encouraged by brushing their teeth. Activities that lead to the elimination and the exposure of asbestos, salt iodination, clean water, air and food, improved road construction that helps in the creation of advanced healthier practices (Lowe, 2002). Besides the above case, the bicycle and scooter rentals is an imperative intervention since the inventions are in place to prevent cardiovascular diseases yet it is erratic with adherence that may not be predicted with unreliable effectiveness. The
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Business and Managerial Economics - Essay Example Trace the evolution of the rent and the quantity traded over time (in the long-run) (20 marks) An earthquake will affect not only the supply side but also the demand side of the housing market. On the supply side, the earthquake will reduce the supply of housing and, assuming that demand remained unchanged, the earthquake will lead to increases in rentals. However, demand does not remained unchanged in a major earthquake that caused significant damage to housing. Aftershocks take place and these sent jitters to consumers. City services like transport, electricity, and water are affected as well. Schools and workplaces may not be able to operate for some time. Thus, a major earthquake can send consumers to an exodus to locations safer from earthquakes and their aftershocks. In short, demand is affected as well. For this reason, it can happen house rent can remain unchanged or landowners may offer discounts to consumers. If demand is significantly reduced, house rent can even decrease and this seems to be the short-term effect in a strong earthquake everywhere. In the medium te rm as a location recovers from the earthquake, city and other services are restored and school/workplace operations normalize. But because supply is unable to respond quickly, housing supply may be fixed as demand is restored back to normal. Therefore, in the medium term, rentals may be higher than the immediate pre-earthquake levels. In this case, economic profit can be higher than normal and investors are encouraged to go into the housing sector. More housing units are built and the prices of house rentals decrease. The trend continues until the situation is normalized. This means that either house rentals are restored back to the pre-earthquake levels or the prices of rentals are back into the situation where economic profit is zero or Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ . This discussion is similar to Varian (2005, p. 9). Restaurants that charge reasonable prices for food but
Economics (the law of demand and supply) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words
Economics (the law of demand and supply) - Essay Example The price that people are willing to pay for a certain product correlates with the quantity of goods supplied are supplied by the suppliers in the market. In economic terms, the law of supply states that the price of the product plays a pivotal role in determining the amount of goods that can be produced at a certain period since this is what people will be willing to buy at that moment. Thus, the law of supply is directly related to the price of the product given that it shapes the behaviour of suppliers. The relationship between the price of the product and the quantity supplied can be graphically illustrated using graphs called supply curves. As going to be explained, it can be seen that there is a movement along the supply curve as well as a shift in position of the same supply curve to the left or to the right as a result of various reasons. As such, this essay seeks to evaluate the main difference between movement along the supply curve as well as a shift in position of the sup ply curve. Various factors that can contribute to the shift in the supply curve are also going to be outlined and discussed in detail. According to Kotler and Armstrong (2004), a supply curve is used to show the quantity of products that can be supplied into the market at a particular price. This curve is diagrammatically presented in an upward slope where each point along the slope depicts the price of the goods and the quantity supplied at that particular moment.... If the price is high, this also entails that the level of supply is also high since the producers will be willing to supply more which is likely to result in the generation of more revenue which constitutes the basics of every business. As such, there is an upward or downward movement along the supply curve as shown in Figure 1 below. Figure 1 Source: http://www.investopedia.com/university/economics/economics3.asp As illustrated in the graph above, points A, B and C are showing the relationship between the price of the product and its supply. An upward movement along the supply curve from point B to C shows that an increase in the price of the product also means an increase in supply. It can be seen that P2 is lower that P3 while at the same time Q2 is lower than Q3. Price is the major determinant of the movements along the supply curve. The movement can also be downward where lower prices will mean the quantity supplied is low as well. The higher the price, the higher the products l ikely to be supplied given that more revenue will be generated as a result of high prices. On the other hand, a shift in the supply curve occurs when there is a change which is parallel to the original position of the supply curve. This shift can be on the left side or right side of the original supply curve. When this shift occurs, the price of the product remains the same (Netmba, 2010). There are other variables which are different from price change that can cause the supply curve to shift either to the left or right side of the original supply curve. For instance, an improvement in manufacturing technology can lead to a shift in the supply curve. There are also various factors that can cause the supply curve to shift as
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
St. Louis Tornado of 1896 - Research Paper Example 17). The tornado razed the major part of the city to the ground, with the loss estimate of 2 million dollars (one agency said it was worth 50, 000, 000) (Dunn & Dunn, 2009, p.51). In just 20 minutes the St Louis tornado blasted a path to the Near South Side of the city which was about 10 miles. It was accountable for destroying as many as 311 buildings, damaging around 7, 200 houses, and harming 1, 300 still others (Curzon, 1896, p. xvi). The National Climatic Data Center ranks it the third deadliest documented tornado in the U.S. history after Tri Strike Tornado of 1925 (official death toll 695 people) and 1840 tornado that affected Nachez, MS (official death toll 317) (National Climatic Data Center, 2012, online). Before discussing the specifics of the St Louis tornado let us first explain what a tornado is. ... At the time when the St Louis Tornado struck at the turn of the 20th century, the news accounts referred to the tornado as merely a cyclone. As it is explained in the foreword to Ã¢â¬Å"The Great Cyclone at St. Louis and East St. Louis, May 27, 1896: Being a Full History of the Most Terrifying and Destructive Tornado in the History of the WorldÃ¢â¬ by Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢Neil, this was not correct from the perspective of climatology since cyclone refers to any movement of the wind of the cyclonic nature. At the same time, a tornado is a funnel cloud particularly fast-twisting and leading to great damage (Curzon, 1896, p. xviii). Curzon (1896, p.28) provides enough evidence that the St Louis tornado was a typical tornado with all the features usually attributed to such phenomena. He, first of all, bases his view on the local news account which told of the detected presence of the upward and inward spiral motions, illustrated by trees having been torn up by their roots and scattered around in a mess. In addition, in certain places, it was reported, the debris was thrown around in each direction. The St Louis Tornado (also known as The St Louis-East St Louis Tornado) of 1896 reportedly touched down in southwest St Louis, which was at that time the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s highest point. Specifically, at 6:30 PM on 27 May 1896 the landfall of two tornadoes (rated F4) was made at St Louis and near the city (Gunn & Gunn, 2009, p.50). Those tornadoes, which were a part of the overall outbreak on the territory of the United States , arrived in a simultaneous manner. One of the tornadoes passed over St Louis and headed for southeast. There it leveled farms in Richview and Irvington located 60 miles east. The other tornado, which was very powerful and excessively destructive,
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Business - Essay Example One of the primary aspects of how globalisation impacts international business is the inter-dependency of international trade. Whereby historically economies were limited to geographical boundaries, having economic systems wholly contained within a national infrastructure, today with the presence of global product trade, it is altering the global economy. For instance, this can be witnessed in China, a country that maintained a very immature capital market until the 1990s as a result of the historical command economy that was centrally controlled by Chinese government. As ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy began to expand as a result of government deregulation, GDP and exportation became a favourable activity to ensure rapid economic growth. As a result, in order to become competitive with the rest of the developed world, it was necessary for businesses (once dominated by government) to adopt capitalistic and neoliberal ideologies which allows for capital assets and production systems to be whol ly owned and managed by private business leaders (Degen 2008). As a result of this change toward capitalism in a previously Communist nation, it became more inviting for foreign businesses to establish joint ventures and strategic alliances with growing Chinese companies to gain a foothold for market entry. Government in China no longer owned majority equity stakes in businesses which ultimately led to opening new competitive opportunities for smaller firms that could not previously compete with government-controlled business group conglomerates. As a result, Western management philosophy (as one relevant example) became entrenched in Chinese businesses with an emphasis on human capital development and organisational culture development rather than operating under tightly-controlled and centralised hierarchies of authority. Adopting a more
Monday, September 23, 2019
Natural selection - Assignment Example Evidently, the process of natural selection has been shown to play a role in seasonal variations in homozygotes and heterozygotes. To this end, it has been ascertained that carriers for different chromosomal variations occur at different frequencies at different seasons. Such genetic constitutions can be passed on to offsprings. This leads to some offsprings that are better suited to environmental disparities, while others are least suited to prevailing environmental conditions. In this article, the variations in seasonal adaptability among natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura are analyzed. Basically, the article unveils a study targeted towards determination of the impact of the gene combinations on the third chromosome of Drosophila pseudoobscura in their adaptation to varied environmental setup. It aims to show that natural selection plays an integral role in determining the survival of organisms with specific gene combinations. The study was prompted by the observations that seasonal variations occurred within the populations of the organisms. More specifically, it was observed that while certain seasons favored heterozygotes, other seasons were more favorable to homozygotes. To test the hypothesis to ascertain the heritability of seasonal adaptation, the research uses experimental designs which involved parent-offspring comparisons under artificial environment, in a population cage. Through this comparison, the study was able to show differential death rates with inversion heterozygotes more favored than homozygotes. Further, this study involved use of specifically selected eggs representative of heterozygote or homozygote states exclusively. Such eggs were produced through well-programmed breeding. Despite the conduct of the experiment in artificial setting, the study confidently outlines that the determination of the artificial experiment is an accurate account of the developments in natural habitat. It
Sunday, September 22, 2019
History of African American Music Essay The result is usually described as soul music, a mix of blues, rhythm and blues, and gospel voices. But, if Ray Charles was one of the originators of soul music, Aretha Franklin reshaped it, by bringing even more of her gospel background to bear on secular love songs (Wade and Picardie 27). By combining popular elements with her stunning voice, her great musicianship, and the feeling for a song that she learned in church, Aretha became one of the greatest soul singers to ever live. Aretha Franklin is a well-known pop, Ramp;B, and gospel singer. She has been nicknamed Ã¢â¬Å"The Queen of SoulÃ¢â¬ and is an internationally known artist and a symbol of pride in the African American community. Her popularity soared in 1967 when she released an album containing songs Ã¢â¬Å"I Never Loved a ManÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"RespectÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"Baby I Love You. Ã¢â¬ Throughout her career she has achieved fifteen Grammy Awards, Lifetime Achievement Award, National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences Legend Awards, and many Grammy Hall of Fame Awards. In 1987 she became the first woman inducted into the Rock amp; Roll Hall of Fame. Time magazine chose her as one of the most influential artists and entertainers of the 20th century. She sang at Dr. Martin Luther KingÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral and at former President Bill ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s inaugural party. Although she has all these accomplishments and awards there are other reasons that have driven Franklin to fame and landed her on the front cover of Time magazine on June 28, 1968. The reasons I believe allowed Aretha Franklin to become so successful are the following: Her familyÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement with religion, the inspiring people that surrounded her, and the pain she suffered. It is clear that because her familyÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement with religion would be one reason why Aretha Franklin became as famous as a Gospel singer. Some people would say that her love for religion is unbelievable, but after researching her childhood it is very believable. Her father, Reverend Clarence LaVaugh Franklin lived in Shelby Mississippi and preached while living the life of a sharecropper. As soon as he had enough money, he would move to Memphis, Tennessee to become a pastor of two churches. After a couple of years he attended LeMoyne College, and he studied Education and English Literature. With his education he was able to bring a more liberal view to his preachingÃ¢â¬â¢s. Then he moved the family to Buffalo, New York. When he had the resources, he moved the family again to Detroit, Michigan were he settled and became a pastor of a churched called New Bethel Baptist Church. He quickly became one of the most famous pastors in the city of Detroit. Aretha was two years old when they made their final move, she would grow up here and grab the emotion of Church and incorporate it into her music. Aretha FranklinÃ¢â¬â¢s mom, Barbara V. Skaggers, served as choir director and pianist. Aretha describes her mom as Ã¢â¬Å"a Superb singer, her voice was clear and distinctiveÃ¢â¬ . (Franklin and Ritz, 6) Her parents taught her how to sing with great pride. This was a big issue because the late Ã¢â¬Ë50s, early Ã¢â¬Ë60s was a time of turmoil for African Americans. Her father especially tried to instill pride into her. He was a Civil Rights activist and he was a close colleague with Dr. Martin Luther King. With her parents keeping her involved in Church she was bound to become one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest singers. At around age 12, the father recognized ArethaÃ¢â¬â¢s talent as a singer. So he took her on the road with his traveling gospel show. This was important because it shows the kind of support Aretha received from her family. It was said, Ã¢â¬Å"She was a spellbinding performer at the age of fourteen. Ã¢â¬ (Franklin, 3) So her family really supported and inspired her to become a gospel singer. What also made her a great artist was that she had inspiring people all around her. Aretha grew up in Detroit which at the time was a rousing city or a city of hope for the African Americans running away from the brutality of the South. Though Detroit still had its problems such as race riots, many famous musicians grew up there. Also since New Bethel Baptist Church was so prominent, many musicians and political leaders used Reverend FranklinÃ¢â¬â¢s pulpit as a platform to sing or speak to the BlackÃ¢â¬â¢s of Detroit. Aretha was introduced to classical music by Smokey RobinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s sister Sylvia Burston. She listened to well known local DJÃ¢â¬â¢s like Ruth Brown and Senator Brystal Brown. When Aretha was younger, she would ride her bike to the local park, and on her way home she would stop by a night club where you could here B. B. King perform. She says, Ã¢â¬Å"You could hear the soft sound of his guitar all the way to the sidewalk (Franklin and Ritz, 22). National and local political leaders would give there speeches. Speakers such as Dr. Adam Clayton Powell, Sr. , Dr. Martin Luther King, and Reverend Jesse Jackson would speak powerfully to the church. Aretha was directly influenced by Miriam Anderson, Sammy Davis, and Roy Wilkins. Detroit was overflowing with talent and speakers which I believe also contributed to ArethaÃ¢â¬â¢s success. Pain was probably what really drove Aretha FranklinÃ¢â¬â¢s success. As stated before, FranklinÃ¢â¬â¢s family was highly religious and was continually involved in the Church. But that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that she hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been through a tremendous amount of pain. Early in life her mother and father got a divorce. The father was better suitable to raise Aretha and her four Siblings. The mother moved to Buffalo, New York and tried to make regular visits to see her children. She was supported her children in the best way she could, but when Aretha needed her, she still was not reachable. Matters became worst a few years later when ArethaÃ¢â¬â¢s mom dies of a stroke. Aretha described her mom by saying Ã¢â¬Å"she was the absolute ladyÃ¢â¬ (Smith, 3). At age 15 she had her first child and two years later another would come. But Aretha still wanted to go out and be with friends, so her grandmother usually babysat for her periodically. In a time when Black Activism, Feminism, and Sexual Liberation were high, she needed to provide for herself. So when Aretha was old enough and was ready to start performing, she hired a man named Ted White to be her manager. He later became her husband. In the future she would divorce him for a famous actor which would end in divorce, too. Even though in 1968 to 1969, FranklinÃ¢â¬â¢s career was rising rapidly. She was still described by her Producer Jerry Wexler as Ã¢â¬Å"a person whose depressions runs deeper than the seaÃ¢â¬ (Ritchie Unterberger, 3). Then one of FranklinÃ¢â¬â¢s highest admirers, gospel giant Mahalia Jackson died. Right after her death a extremely emotional gospel album was released my Aretha Ã¢â¬Å"Amazing GraceÃ¢â¬ This record was considered to be one of the most emotional records of its time. Much of the pain that Aretha suffered was not really publicized, but still it had to be one of the reasons for her to have such a powerful voice. Aretha Franklin was a successful artist and still inspires musicians today. Her voice is still described as incredible. She has all the awards that she needs to show her talent. Works cited Franklin, Aretha, and David Ritz. Aretha: From These Roots. New York: Villard, 1999. Print. Carroll, Jillian. Aretha Franklin. Chicago: Raintree, 2004. Print
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Concerned With Voluntary Euthanasia J. David Velleman and Dan W. Brock are both concerned with voluntary euthanasia; a competent patient making a voluntary request to have his or her life ended. The arguments laid out in Vellemans, Against the Right to Die, and Brocks, Voluntary Active Euthanasia deal with active and passive voluntary euthanasia. Active being that the patient actively takes the last step in their death, while passive is usually defined as withdrawing medical treatment with intent to cause death. They do not consider cases involving involuntary euthanasia, when the patient is competent and refuses treatment. Nor do they consider non voluntary euthanasia, when the patient isnt competent at all. Many people believe that giving legality to voluntary active euthanasia (VAE) will in turn lead to involuntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia, the slippery slope fallacy, but for the purposes of this paper Im only concerned with VAE. Both authors agree that anyone could possibly be morally entitled to be allowed or h elped to die. However, Velleman argues against an institutional right to die. He believes that making the choice of voluntary active euthanasia available to the people can make them worse off even if they choose the option that is best for them. The ability to make a choice makes one worse off than going with the default option. In this paper, Im going to analyze Vellemans arguments while explaining how Brock responded to Vellemans arguments. To keep the integrity of each authors thoughts, I am going to use similar word phases which will be identified in quotes and later labeled with the paper number of reference. Velleman agrees that we have an obligation to assist some deaths, however he disagrees with those who use Kantian terms to justify such an obligation. He explains that voluntary active euthanasia deals with two major rights a person has, according to Kantian moral theory. They have the right to dignity and their autonomy. A multitude of life-preserving treatments are said to, violate a persons dignity or to detain him in an undignified state (Velleman, pg 2). A patient has the right of autonomy, or self-determinism, which is that we respect his/her competent wishes even if its a wish to die. Velleman goes on to explain how these rights become confusing when dealing with Kantian language in the terms of medical ethics. He has reservations about the loose definitions which dont match up with the extreme states of patients who are in question while dealing with euthanasia. Because of these qualms, Velleman disregards these Kantian-based arguments and moves on. Aside from problems in definition, VAE is dealing with other peoples autonomy. If laws are to be made which prohibit this autonomy, than these laws should make people better off. Velleman feels he has an answer to this dilemma which leads to his second argument against the option of euthanasia being given to patients, but unlike the first, this reason is consequentialist. When Velleman speaks of his consequentialist reasoning, he isnt referring to the consequences of mistakingly choosing to die, but instead, the consequences of placing such an option in the hands of the patient. He believes that giving patients this option will actually make them worse off. Im going to explain how Velleman attempts to prove this and then give the objections laid out by Brock. Contrary to natural thought, if we are given a second option besides the default, it will make us worse off than before no matter which option is chosen. Velleman explains this idea with an example of a cashier who is given the power to open the safe. Its not that the cashier doesnt directly want the power, but rather, it would make him a target for robbers. Even though opening the safe while at gun point would be the right thing to do, hed be wishing hed never been given the option of doing it (Velleman, pg 8). This makes him worse off because he can no longer have the default option, not being forced to open the safe at gun point, without choosing it. Multiple options become available and he is now subject to the pressures of possibility. Relative to euthanasia, this is the most important way of harm. We would be denying a patient the status quo of staying alive by default, with the option of euthanasia looming over his head. Because of this, the patient will now see himself in con trol of his own survival, which is ordinarily viewed as given to him. If the patient sees himself as this agent of control, then he will be held responsible for his actions by himself and others. He would then be required to justify his actions, whether it be his continued existence or choice of euthanasia. The burden of justifying ones existence might make existence unbearable and hence unjustifiable. (Velleman, pg 11) It may be perceived as insecurity, but justifying oneself personally and to others is extremely important to those who are ill. When the gift of independent activity is taken from someone, personal intercourse and intercourse with others is the only relief left in life. And so, unless he can defend his existence to the satisfaction of others, his only reasons for life may disappear. A patient who believes that his terminal illness is not an ample reason for ending his life with be faced with the burden of proof. Even if the patient believes that his life is worth living, he may find reasons to assume that those around him think otherwi se. Reasons ranging from the financial or the emotional costs of prolonging life may cause him to rationally judge that he is better off taking the option of euthanasia (Velleman, pg 12-13). Therefore, Velleman believes that if we offer the option of dying, than we may give patients new reason to choose death. Through the preceding arguments, Velleman is lead to believe that euthanasia should be permissible in some cases, yet still forbidden in others. However, he doubts that policymakers could define such conditions in which the option of dying would be beneficial and when the option of dying would be harmful. This leads him think that the best solution to the problem is allowing health professionals to decide. They should be given the power to permit, and never require, the option of euthanasia or to grant the patients request for it (Velleman, pg 19). It would be possible define certain conditions when the option should never be offered, but we cannot define conditions when euthanasia should always be offered. If put into effect, caregivers could withhold the option whenever they see fit, even when requested. Velleman claims that we already put so much trust into health professionals that this would serve as an effective solution. However, he still believes that the best policy of eutha nasia is no policy at all. Velleman states that he is inclined to believe that advances in medical technology have outrun the capacity of institutional rules to regulate their application. (Velleman, pg 20) And so, the policy regarding euthanasia should be weak and vague by design, left up to the individual health care professionals and the patient in question. (Velleman, pg 20) Dan W. Brock takes the opposite stance as J. David Velleman, believing that there should be an established institutional right to die, as stated in his article, Voluntary Active Euthanasia. He lays out many positive and negative potential consequences of euthanasia, but feels strongest about protecting patients right to autonomy. I will briefly explain some potential positive and negative consequences of euthanasia, but will focus more on his direct responses to Vellemans argument. Some potential good consequences of euthanasia include: giving the general public a broader sense of control over their life and death, showing mercy to suffering patients, and once death is undeniable in certain cases its more humane to do it quickly. Some potential bad consequences of euthanasia include: its not compatible with physicians moral and professional commitment as healers; to protect life, and euthanasia could weaken societys commitment to providing optimal care to the sick. Brock directly calls out Vallemans solution to the euthanasia problem and refutes it. Velleman argues that offering the option of euthanasia would make patients worse off than if not given the option at all. This leads Velleman to conclude the best solution is health care professionals having the power to permit, and never require, (Velleman, pg 19) the option of euthanasia or to grant the patients request for it. In doing so, situations in which there are unmistakable and over- powering reasons for persons to want the option of euthanasia (Brock, pg 19) would be the only cases granted it. Brock lists three main reasons why such restrictions wouldnt lead to the best outcome. First, polls and other evidence tend to show that most Americans do, in fact, believe that euthanasia should be allowed. Consequently, the amount of people made worse off by having the option wont outweigh those made better by having the option. Second, if people would be made worse off by the option of a right t o die, than why dont we see any consequences of voluntary passive euthanasia? People already have the option to refuse life-sustaining treatment and there is no evidence of harmful effects or public desire to take away such right. How would establishing an institutional right to active euthanasia make any difference? To this argument, Velleman has a refute. He states that the option of refusing life-sustaining treatment to end ones life may be just as harmful as having the option of active euthanasia. However, the proportions of deaths that occur as a result of passive euthanasia is very small, making the side-effects very small as well. Also, these side effects are to be accepted as an unavoidable byproduct of protecting the right not to be assaulted. Assaulted in this case as morally entitled to refuse treatment because we are morally entitled to not be drugged or punctured with needles. Third, there is a wide range of conditions that are reasonably disagreed about in the terms of euthanasia. If Velleman suggests restricting euthanasia to persons whose conditions indisputably call for it, than we would be denying the most amount of people who want it. In conclusion, Velleman and Brock disagree on whether to establish an institutional right to die or not. Velleman argues that establishing such a right would burden those given the option of euthanasia, that to offer an option of dying gives new reasons to end ones life. Because of this, he suggests the solution of a weak and vague euthanasia policy by design, left up to the individual health care professionals and the patient in question. Brock argues for an institutional right to die. He lists possible positive and negative outcomes and directly refutes Vellemans conclusion with three arguments. Brock and Velleman could go back and forth all day arguing and refuting each other. However, I believe that they disagree in the simple fundamentals of the situation. Brock believes that an individuals well-being and control over his or her own life far outweighs any impact on society, while Velleman believes that even the option would make patients and society worse off overall.
Friday, September 20, 2019
The ChildÃ¢â¬â¢s Hidden Tiger In the short story The Child by Tiger, Thomas Wolfe portrays mans dark side through the unexpected madness of the seemingly good-natured Dick Prosser and the actions taken by the town people. This story is set in an era when people believed race determined the moral character of a person. Many viewed blacks as social outcast and hence the cause of most crimes. This is true to the extent that African Americans were committing a large number of petty crimes, but were they really the cause. Many factors play into determining a cause, and in this case it is quite evident that the social conditions in which African Americans were forced to live in contributed to there social behavior. However, can these pressures push a man to mental madness and drive him towards mass murder? It is not just to say that he is without fault, but it is true to say that, the coldness of one man will decrease the warmth of another. The story gives us a glimpse of DickÃ¢â¬â¢s life a short period before the cl imax. We are left to probe clues and use our imagination and intuition to come to a personal conclusion of why Dick committed mass murder. The time in which the story takes place was a period of severe racial discrimination especially toward Blacks. The most prevalent attitude toward African Americans was that they were somehow inferior to the whites. This is evident by the referral of Dick as the Ã¢â¬Å"SheppertonÃ¢â¬â¢s Negro manÃ¢â¬ (Wolfe 24). Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. Shepperton himself Arellano 2 declared ... The Child?s Hidden Tiger Essay -- essays research papers The ChildÃ¢â¬â¢s Hidden Tiger In the short story The Child by Tiger, Thomas Wolfe portrays mans dark side through the unexpected madness of the seemingly good-natured Dick Prosser and the actions taken by the town people. This story is set in an era when people believed race determined the moral character of a person. Many viewed blacks as social outcast and hence the cause of most crimes. This is true to the extent that African Americans were committing a large number of petty crimes, but were they really the cause. Many factors play into determining a cause, and in this case it is quite evident that the social conditions in which African Americans were forced to live in contributed to there social behavior. However, can these pressures push a man to mental madness and drive him towards mass murder? It is not just to say that he is without fault, but it is true to say that, the coldness of one man will decrease the warmth of another. The story gives us a glimpse of DickÃ¢â¬â¢s life a short period before the cl imax. We are left to probe clues and use our imagination and intuition to come to a personal conclusion of why Dick committed mass murder. The time in which the story takes place was a period of severe racial discrimination especially toward Blacks. The most prevalent attitude toward African Americans was that they were somehow inferior to the whites. This is evident by the referral of Dick as the Ã¢â¬Å"SheppertonÃ¢â¬â¢s Negro manÃ¢â¬ (Wolfe 24). Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. Shepperton himself Arellano 2 declared ...
Thursday, September 19, 2019
A butcher is someone who brutally slaughters other human-beings. According to this definition Macbeth was a ’butcher’ by the end of the play. Macbeth becoming a butcher was brought about by his ambition for power, and how this ambition was used by the witches. Macbeth’s ambition is made obvious from the start. It is the thing the witches use get him under their spell,’All hail thee Thane of Glamis….Thane of Cawdor…..king’. Macbeth is intrigued by this greeting. When he finds out from Duncan that he has become the thane of Cawdor he whispers to the audience,’Glamis, and the thane of Cawdor, the greatest is behind.’ Macbeth is sure that he will become king. However at this stage he thinks that he will acquire it legally as he sees murder as,’fantastical’(I,iii,139). The story of how Macbeth descends into butchery starts when Duncan announces that Malcolm is to be,’Prince of Cumberland’(I,iv,39) and therefore Duncan’s successor as king of Scotland. Macbeth is now in a dilemma. He has just been told he will be king by the witches. Two of their prophesies have become true already. However, because Malcolm has just become king he cannot see how the third prophesy will come true. Macbeth’s wife solves his problem by telling him to kill Duncan. She tells him this after reading his letter to her and after hearing that the king is coming to her castle. She decides to’look like the innocent flower, but be the serpent under’t.’(I,v,63-65). Lady Macbeth plays an important part in Macbeth’s spiral downwards into becoming a butcher by persuading him to commit his first murder. Macbeth doesn’t want to kill Duncan and has strong doubts about what he should do, as shown by what he says in act I, scene vii,’He’s in double trust here…..i am his kinsman strong against the deed , then as his host, who should against his murderer shut the door, not bear the knife himself’ Lady Macbeth changes his mind by challenging his manhood,’When you durst do it, then you were a man’ and, to be more than what you were, you would be so much more the man.’(I,vii,49-51) He finally decides, after much tossing and turning that killing Duncan would be the best thing,’I am settled’. What Duncan said after the Thane of Cawdor was executed that,’there’s no art to find the mind’s construction in the face’(I,iv,12-13) is proved when Macbeth says,’False face must hide what the false heart dost know’(I,iv,82-83)
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Siddhartha had one single goal - to become empty, to become empty of thirst, desire, dreams, pleasure and sorrow - to let the Self die. No longer to be Self, to experience the peace of an emptied heart, to experience pure thought - that was his goal. When all the Self was conquered and dead, when all passions and desires were silent, then the last must awaken, the innermost of Being that is no longer Self - the great secret (14) Siddhartha, according to his actions, was constantly in search for knowledge, regardless of what kind, or what he had to do to obtain it. In the book titled Siddhartha, by Herman Hesse, this is shown to us by Siddhartha's leaving home to join the Samanas, and all the actions leading to his residence alongside the river.Leaving his loving family and home where all loved him, shows us that Siddhartha not only knows what he wants but will do anything to attain it. As described on pages 10 through 12, Siddhartha did not leave his father's chambers until he had gotten his way, until his father had submitted to Siddhartha's wishes and agreed to let him leave home to join the Samanas. This stubbornness, this patience with people and situations is also a large part of Siddhartha's character. It enables him to out wait anyone or anything, which teaches him how to do without and also helps him through his time with the Samanas. "Siddhartha learned a great deal from the Samanas he learned many ways of losing the Self" (15). Despite the new knowledge he acquired, Siddhartha realized that it was only " . . . a temporary palliative against the pain and folly of life" (17). And with this, his next decision was to leave the Samanas and go in search of the Buddha in order to learn perhaps something he did not already know. Through this we learn that Siddhartha, having learned all that is possible in one place, moves to another in search for more wisdom in search for the secret of how to obtain inner peace, how to find the Self. This action also shows his change by showing us that Siddhartha no longer has the patience to stick to certain routines as he did when he was at home in his youth. Finding the Buddha in a garden, Siddhartha and Govinda spend an evening and afternoon in the " .
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
This essay will explore the difference between permissive and authoritarian approaches in hypnotherapy. Included will be history of the two approaches, background of the way they work and practical examples to show the influence they have on clients. Gathering information through various means (which will be discussed in this essay) will help the hypnotherapist create a personalized induction. The essay will explore this personalized induction and see if it will always be most effective to use a script that is modified of tailor made for the particular client. Its first important to understand how important words are for the hypnotherapist.Its claimed by studies from University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) that 90 percent of communication between people is non-verbal. Although there no way to confirm this study 100 percent the message is clear that verbal communication such as using spoken words, enunciation, emphasis and words choice, makes up only a small percentage of the mes sage. This issue wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be such a problem in normal circumstances, but the hypnotherapist relies heavily on his word choice because body language (which makes of 55 percent of communication) wonÃ¢â¬â¢t count for much as the clients eyes should be closed throughout most the session!So whereas in a normal communication experience a person saying a wrong word will not necessarily ruin the conversation, in a hypnotic session each word counts! So if words are the ammunition of the hypnosis how can they use them the most effectively? If the hypnosis is part of a longer therapeutic process, they there a good chance the therapist will have an idea about the clients, likes and dislikes and will able to use a script that will most accurately flow will with the client. But if the hypnosis is an independent part of the process then the practitioner will need to work fast to work out what will work best with client.We all have certain modalities that we will respond better to than oth ers. At one point the education system focused a lot of developing students according to their best learning modalities. These modalities are based on our senses; sight, hearing, feeling, small and taste. The names of the different modalities include kinesthetic which is feeling, visual which is sight, auditory which is hearing, olfactory which is smell and gustatory which is taste. We will focus on the three most common kinesthetic, visual and auditory.In the initial interview the therapist could look at certain eye accession clues after asking questions and see where way the eyes move. For example the lateral eye movement for person who is primary kinesthetic would appear down to the right when looking at the therapist, or for an auditory modality the eyes would be more horizontal. There are other clues to pick up on such as posture and gesture and for example a visual modality person might hold their body in a less relaxed way than kinesthetic and many times thinner.Also the voic e, tone and breathing can be clues to working out quickly a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s main modality. A kinesthetic person might have a softer, deeper voice and speak with pauses in their speech where as a visual might speak faster and in a high clear tone. There are other tools used to assess the clients modality based on appearance, personality and behavior which the therapist could do quite quickly to get an idea of where the client might be holding. Once the therapist makes this initial judgment, what do they do with this information and how is it helpful?Knowing the clients foremost modality will help the therapist in choose words that will take the client into deeper states of relaxation as well as resist less to suggestions the hypnotherapist will be making. So for example kinesthetic person will respond well to words that are related to feeling such as touch, smooth, hot, cold etc. Whereas a visual person will react better to ideas like imagine, perspective, watch, or references to col ors. When asking a person to imagine their special place a visual oriented person will thrive from such an activity.Also when working with visual clients word choose around sight will be helpful such as look, imagine or visualize. Also phrases such as looks good to me or I understand your outlook. An auditory person would be brought to a state of relaxation through music or other sounds with less resistance than a person of a different modality. Using ideas such as harmony and listening to the body will work well with such people. It is important to point out that most people have a strong tendency to one of these modalities but also most people are a composite of the all the different modalities.With this is mind there is a technique used my hypnotist called compounding where they will try to invoke all the different modalities. For example: Imagine (visual) yourself standing next to a gently flowing waterfall. Hear (auditory) the power of water as it falls miles and miles beyond w here you can even see. It looks as though it is falling into infinite abyss. Move closely to water and feel (kinesthetic) the water run through your fingers. Sense the waters calmness and warmth and feel that healing energy from it. Smell (olfactory) the sweet (gustatory) fragrant flowers surrounding this heavenly body of water.Another important aspect of induction material is whether you should use a permissive or authoritarian style script. This history of these two approaches is based very much on the Hungarian Sandor Derenzi who referred to these two approaches as maternal and paternal. Again since our mode of communication during hypnotic sessions is only thought word choice getting the right script that will best fit the client and cause less resistance is important. Authoritarian scripts are much like they sounds, very authoritative. The client is going into the control of the hypnotist much more so with an authoritarian approach than a permissive approach.The hypnotist will say likes such as Ã¢â¬â¢now I would like you to close your eyesÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëyou will close your eyes on the count of fiveÃ¢â¬â¢. A permissive PRM would use a softer language such as Ã¢â¬Ëif you would like you may close your eyesÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëon the count of 5 you might want to close your eyesÃ¢â¬â¢. The traditional authoritarian screeds will not leave space for the client to make choices whereas permissive would.For example: Ã¢â¬ËI would like you now to go to your special placeÃ¢â¬â¢ vs. Ã¢â¬Ëmany people find going to their special place quite relaxingÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ënow we will move the relaxation down into our thighs musclesÃ¢â¬â¢ vs.Ã¢â¬Ëyou may like to continue to the relaxation into the muscles in your thighs. There are many such examples, but generally authoritarian is the more fatherly directive approach while permissive is more motherly and nurturing. Milton H. EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution to the hypnotherapy world is renowned. He was a very big believer in using language that permissive as it would invoke less resistance in clients. He would very fluid and in the moment and would use naturalistic language in the sessions. If there was a noise or irritation the clients would expertise in the session, he would try to incorporate it naturally using metaphors.A theoretical example might be something like a phone vibrating, he might say Ã¢â¬Ëjust as a phone vibrates, there as vibration of relaxation that envelopes the whole world. Ã¢â¬â¢ Erickson was known for his use of indirect suggestions but I think in clear cut cases such as quitting smoking using direct suggestions would clearly be the more appropriate approach. As one can see, the hypnotist has only a short time to work out how to make small tweaks in the scripts that will enable the client to relax as deeply as possible and open themselves up to the suggestions the hypnotist has to offer.Although everything I have written until now I believe in, I do think ther e is another side worth mentioning. Maybe none of this matters. Maybe the hypnotist should just be as genuine to themselves and offer the client that. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s possible the hypnotist is spending so much time trying to work out what this person needs they are not even giving over a positive rapport to the client. Personally I think the first impression the hypnotist makes on the client in their initial assessment might even be more important that the preciseness of the scripts.The counselling relationship plays a huge role in the clients ability to self-heal. The safeness that the counsellor wants to spend his energy creating enables the client to be much more open and trusting in the process. It canÃ¢â¬â¢t be downplayed how much these points have an enormous effect. I feel very much we live in a very wishy-washy time. What was once expected as fact is now looked down upon and what was once scorned is now praised. There is an element of beauty in our more open and accepting tole rant society, but personally I believe it has been taken to an extreme.To be blunt and to the point, all hypnotherapy is authoritative. There is a client who is coming to a therapist for help because whatever they are struggling with, they feel they canÃ¢â¬â¢t handle themselves. They need someone to be direct with them. Even if you say Ã¢â¬Ëyou may like to close your eyesÃ¢â¬â¢ it is really just a trick to get the person to close their eyes. Maybe just by being direct you are being more genuine and honest. One of the beauties of hypnotherapy is once you get down to the subconscious you are working with more of the essence of the person.Once you are there, all the craziness of the propaganda stops and you can see a person from much of an objective place. While writing this essay I had an experience that sums up how I feel about all the different aspects of this essay. As a therapist IÃ¢â¬â¢m very aware of the uneven power balance in the counselling relationship. Whenever ther e is an opportunity to help keep the client in control I always try. So I was taking someone to see a therapist in the city and the therapist did a little relaxation with us. He was unique in the way he worked where I felt in charge over myself but he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t being permissive in his language.I think his relational techniques were so good that it enabled him to be an effect authoritarian without invoking internal resistance. In conclusion, yes of course a personalized induction will be more effective. If the hypnotist is able to work out very quickly what kind of person this client is and is flexible enough to change scripts and go with what they feel is great as long as in doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t come at the expenses of forming a proper therapeutic relationship. But I think in the grand scheme of the therapeutic process it will be a small factor when taking all the necessary components into consideration.
Monday, September 16, 2019
What is meant by Caribbean music in a new mode? What emphasis, in this chapter, seems to justify a departure from traditional presentations of music and culture of the Caribbean? Caribbean music in a new mode itÃ¢â¬â¢s meant that it probes the African antecedents retained in the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s religious rituals. The chapter further contends that in the African-derived context, no distinction is made between sacred and secular, and that popular festivals like carnival, rara, junkannu, or gumbay are rooted in an Afro-religious mode. In this respect, one finds commonality of themes, the major ones being: cultural affirmation; aspirations to freedom; and resistance to oppression as expressed in rituals such as Vodou, Santeria, Candomble, Kumina, or Shango; popular dance-hall styles like Ã¢â¬Å"rasinÃ¢â¬ in Haiti, reggae in Jamaica, samba-reggae in Brazil; and carnival musics like calypso and soca in Trinidad & Tobago. The mix of culture seems to justify a departure from traditional presentation of music and culture of the Caribbean. Caribbean music was influenced by the triple cultural: Amerindian, African and European. Caribbean music styles can be classified into folk, classical, or commercial popular categories.Caribbean Music contain the traditional music and the features of other countries and area. It creates its own unique style. Caribbean Music absorbed African music Percussion Music. The Caribbean can make good use of drums and other strong beat instruments. Samba,Rumba, Merengue, Reggae,Calypso, and Soca are also relate to the African dancing. Therefore, vigorous music is one of important Caribbean Music Characteristics. Because of the the effect on the west side, Caribbean Music always has a strong Latin style, which makes Caribbean Music more charming. In the past, the Carnival was resisted by the upper class. However, it becomes the world biggest showcase for all over the world. Nowadays, Caribbean music combine some international elements and keep their music original style which leads Caribbean music and its dancing to become more famous and popular. The music of the Caribbean illustrates the soundscape of Africa and Europe, and this may be observed in the rhythms of Candomble, SanterÃ a, Vodou, Kumina, and Shango, as well as the popular dance-hall styles of rumba, samba, merengue, reggae, calypso and soca.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Chinese religion and strict cultural beliefs are inseparable from the death rites performed. Many different names for death are scattered throughout Chinese history, including an ideogram that depicts a person kneeling in front of their ancestorÃ¢â¬â¢s bones 1. In Chinese culture, death rites are intricate and well thought out works on preparing one for the afterlife and rebirth. Chinese funeral rites have strict guidelines as to where the rites are to be performed, how the rites are performed (ritual bathing of the corpse), the dress of the attendees and the dead, the transfer of material goods on Earth to the dead, acknowledgement of the deceased and the actual burial of the body. All these sacred rites are performed by specialists (usually priests or otherwise) who are paid by the deceasedÃ¢â¬â¢s family members. Death rituals carry on long after the burial of the body in terms of grieving for the dead. These rites include returning to the burial site on specific dates to mourn, perform yuan-fen (a symbolic act in which the burial site is rounded off with dirt to give it a nice and proper shape) and burning of incense and earthly offerings 2. Attitudes and beliefs on death and the afterlife are quite the same among the Chinese people of the late Imperial Chinese culture and the Chinese culture of today. The continuing traditions of the ritualistic burials sheds light on one way a society can be linked culturally. 1. T.C. Lai Ã¢â¬Å"To The Yellow Springs: The Chinese View of DeathÃ¢â¬ (17) Hong Kong: Joint Publbishing Co. and Kelly & Walsh, 1983 2. Watson, James L. and Evelyn L. Rawski Ã¢â¬Å"Death Ritual in Late Imperial and Modern ChinaÃ¢â¬ (12-15) Berklely: University of California Press, 1988 Different cultures harbor different views on death and dying, and it is important to understand the significance of these contrasting elements of other cultures and our own. The Chinese cultures do not see death as something shy away from, but rather it is a part of life that is revered. Death is such a scared step that it embodies many different characters for definition such as ni 3a and qi shi 3b. The transition from being a mortal and alive and being deceased is very important to the Chinese. The ChineseÃ have a strict set of funeral rites that must be followed completely in order for the transition between this world and the world after death to be smooth- the rites are so embedded in culture and rich with rules that there is even a set time for certain levels of grievances. Death rites are often followed by a series of mourning sessions over the year. However, death rituals for those higher up in society, of course, differ from those of the common man. James L. Watson states that Ã¢â¬Å"To be Chinese is to understand, and accept the view, that there is a correct way to perform rites associated with the life-cycle, the most important being weddings and funerals. By following accepted ritual routines ordinary citizens participated in the process of cultural unification.Ã¢â¬ 4 and with this in mind we can begin to understand the reason why the Chinese abode by such rigid structure for the burial of a deceased person. The structure that was imposed on the people of China was embraced because it brought everyone together. 3. T.C. Lai Ã¢â¬Å"To the Yellow Springs: The Chinese View of DeathÃ¢â¬ (18) Hong Kong: Joint Publbishing Co. and Kelly & Walsh, 1983 4. Quote from: Watson, James L. Ã¢â¬Å"Death Ritual in Late Imperial and Modern ChinaÃ¢â¬ The Structure of Chinese Funerary Rites: Elementary Forms, Ritual Sequence, and the Primacy of Performance (3) The sequence in which the ritual is performed is laid out perfectly and begins with public notification that a death has occurred. As soon as a death has occurred women in the presence of the death must announce the death by wailing at the top of her lungs, such wailings, as documented by Watson were not voluntary. Along with the informal announcement of death was a formal one where white banners and blue lanterns are placed around the abode and along the doorway. Some of the formal notices were voluntary in part of China, whereas in some parts they were also mandatory. Not much unlike Western culture, different colors hint to a time of mourning. Instead of wearing black (like in Western cultures), those who are mourningÃ the deceased in China are seen wearing white clothes, shoes and cloaks that are usually made out of sackcloth or hemp. Although mourning colors differ in different parts of China, white is the universal color of mourning for the Chinese. These mourning clothes are usually ragged, unbleached, unhemmed and white. 5 The corpse must go through a series of cleansings and blessings before it is allowed to be buried. A ritualized bathing of the corpse is required before it goes on to the next step in the rites. In south China the water is not gathered by the family themselves, but rather, bought from a deity of a sacred well. This particular rite is called mai-shui or roughly translated, Ã¢â¬Å"buying waterÃ¢â¬ . There are 5. Jones, Constance R.I.P. The Complete Book Of Death And Dying New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1997 (Pg. 163)Ã several ways the corpse is cleansedÃ¢â¬âfrom scrubbing with the water bought, or aÃ gentle dab on the forehead with the sacred water. Along with the cleaning is theÃ donning of new clothes on the corpse. The next step in the funerary rites would be the transfer of material goods to the dead. Things like paper clothes, cardboard houses, furniture and servants and other things the dead might need in the afterlife would be transferred into the world of the dead by burning them in a big pot. Food was presented as an offering to the deceased and afterwards, the mourners would partake in the food. 6 Food is an integral part of Chinese tradition and culture, especially with the ritualized steps of burial. Stuart E. Thompson says that, Ã¢â¬Å"To be Chinese is to perform Chinese ritual and vice-versa; to be Chinese is also to eat Chinese-style food with Chinese-style implements.Ã¢â¬ It is explained that theÃ food used in the rites are to transform a corpse into an ancestor. Food is a centerpiece in the ritual more than once. 1. Foods are presented as soon as the person dies and once again during the ceremonial coffining of the body. Rice is a crucial part of Chinese diet and rice balls and other food products (roast pork and such) are usually placed on top of his/her coffin to accompany the dead on their journey. Parts of the ceremony are used to separate the living from the dead, for instance, the breaking of bowls to break the ties between the dead and his/her descendants. After the breaking of the bowls, the 6. Watson, James L. Ã¢â¬Å"The Structure of Chinese Funerary RitesÃ¢â¬ from Death Ritual in Late Imperial and Modern China. (12-13)Ã family members must insure that the deceased does not return upset, soÃ the belongings of the deceased must be symbolically distributed among his/her heirs using the food on top of the coffin. 2. After the coffining of the body, food is presented to the coffin at least twice a day by the daughter-in-law of the deceased. These offerings are made until the coffin is buried. Sometimes, the offerings continue even after burial. 3. A farewell feast is giving either the day before, or on the day of the burial. This tradition is to ensure that transformation from being deceased into an ancestor is complete. Prized offerings consist of either pig heads or whole pigs along with rice. Along with the farewell feast for the deceased, some offerings are given to hungry ghosts whom would usually steal from the deceased on his/her journey. 4. Wine, usually rice wine, is poured into three cups for the dead on the burial grounds. This is the last rite before the body passes on to become an ancestor. 5. Food is presented again after the burial when everyone returns to the home where the ceremony began. Ancestral tablets (explained further in this paper) are then set on specially built alters or mantles. (My own family has the ashes of the deceased on a mantle in which food is presented to them at every meal) 7 7. Thompson, Stuart E. Ã¢â¬Å"Death, Food, And FertilityÃ¢â¬ from Death Ritual in the Late Imperial and Modern China. (75-76) Soul tablets are made for the deceased (except for children and unknown people) as a symbol of a part of their soul. These soul tablets are made by ritual specialists and are placed either on an alter (of those who are married) or in temples, specified institutions or covenants for a fee (for unwed women). These tablets were very important to the rites of the dead. A written Chinese name was required for these tablet, hence the reason why unknown strangers could not receive one. The dead were not recognized by any materialistic idol or pictures, but only by their written Chinese name. Music was also an integral part of the burial sequence. There were two different kinds of sounds that were used to either ward off evil spirits or aid the passing of the soul. High-pitched piping and drumming were the two common sounds heard during burial rites. These sounds are usually played during transitions in the ritual, usually when physical movement of the corpse is taking place. Music is also played during the sealing of the corpse. The Chinese found that this is the most important feature of all the different acts. The coffins made of wood have been with the Chinese since the Neolithic. Again, paid specialists are the ones who make sure the corpse is stationary within the coffin. They secure the lid on with nails and caulking compounds to be sure that the coffin is airtight. The nailing of the coffin is the most important part of the whole ritual. The hammering is usually done by the main mourner or by an invited guest who holds a high social status. The final sequence is the removal of the coffin from the village. However, thisÃ last rite does not need to be performed immediately. It is actually a sign of respect for theÃ coffin to be kept close to the family over a long period of time. But of course, there comes a time when the coffin must leave the hands of the living. 8 Those who are relatively wealthy will be able to carry out every burial rite with the assistance of a burial specialist. Watson explains that, Ã¢â¬Å"The ethnographic evidence suggests that, among the Cantonese, there is a hierarchy of specialists ranked according to the relative exposure to the pollution of death. This hierarchy also reflects the standards of skill, training, and literacy required to carry out ritual tasksÃ¢â¬ (Death Ritual in Late Imperial and Modern China. 109) The highest ranking specialist is the Geomancer (a person who has the ability to foretell the future by using signs from the earth) whose work demands high levels of skill and literacy. Next in line are priests who receive their knowledge through years of apprenticeship. Priests are moderately literate in order to perform mortuary rites. Those who rank below priests are usually illiterate, mainly because their line of work usually does not require any reading or skill. These specialists range from pipers, nuns, musicians, and overall helpers. There are also helpers who rank even lower than those below priests and these are the corpse handlers. Corpse handlersÃ¢â¬â¢ tasks involve washing the corpse, dressing the corpse and arranging the corpse in the coffin, and finally carrying the coffin to its burial ground, digging the grave, and disposing items that are directly associated with the corpse 9. Corpse handlers are of the lowest ranking ritual specialists because they are deemed as highly polluted by death and are set apart from the other specialists. 8. Watson, James L. Death Rituals in Late Imperial and Modern China (12-15) 9. Watson, James L. Ã¢â¬Å"Funeral Specialists in Cantonese Society: Pollution, Performance, and Social HierarchyÃ¢â¬ Death Ritual in Late Imperial and Modern China (109-110) Along with the ritual sequence come the many names for death. AsÃ explained before, the earliest concept of death was characterized as a person kneeling before his ancestorÃ¢â¬â¢s bones. The deaths of people of different ranks in society are characterized differently from one another. The death of sovereign is called beng ,which comes from the sound of a large building collapsing. The death of a prince is called hong (the sound of something breaking), a government ministerÃ¢â¬â¢s death is called cu (Ã¢â¬Å"the endÃ¢â¬ ), and that of an official is called bu lu (meaning: ending the enjoyment of emolument), however, the death of a common person is less extravagantÃ¢â¬âsi simply means Ã¢â¬Å"to expireÃ¢â¬ . Just like the many characters there are for the people who pass away, there are many characters for the ways people can die, for example, death from old age is called shou zhong which translates to Ã¢â¬Å"the termination of longevityÃ¢â¬ , which death while young is ca lled yao which means Ã¢â¬Å"breaking in mid-journeyÃ¢â¬ . 10 With the different ways they have to describe death in one or two words, it is hard not to notice that the Chinese are very much interested in the process of death. In China, the spring time is time for purification and regeneration. The Spring Festival is held every spring and it is very important to the comfort of the dead. During the festival, descendants will visit graves of their ancestors to honorÃ and care for the burial ground and body it incases. Prayers and sacrifices are made to the dead during that time and the act of Ã¢â¬Å"saluting the tombÃ¢â¬ is practiced. 10. Text adapted from To the Yellow Springs: The Chinese View of Death by T.C. Lai. Hong Kong: Joint Publishing Co. and Kelly & Walsh. (1983) (Text 18) Ã¢â¬Å"Saluting the tombÃ¢â¬ is an act where red-colored rice and peeled eggs, which are symbolic of the saying Ã¢â¬Å"old gives way to the newÃ¢â¬ , are placed on top of the burial ground. November is the month that harbors Ghost Day celebrations. Ghost day is a special day where people burn paper money asÃ offerings to their ancestors. Another day of celebration is the Winter Dress Festival where paper clothes and such are burned for their ancestors, again this holiday is celebrated in October and November 11. These celebrations do not directly pertain to spirits who are in a state of unrest. In China a ghost, a male ghost is called kuei while the female is called yao, is a spirit whose death was either very unusual or very violent criminal act. The Chinese are extremely superstitious. It is said that ghosts linger relatively close to the location of their death. For example, Ghosts of thieves would sometimes be seen close to the area of their execution. Another common superstition (one that was also taught to me) was that if a pregnant woman were to walk past a spot where a person has died, that spirit would attempt to expel the childÃ¢â¬â¢s soul and replace it with its own to be reborn 12. Anniversary ghosts also exist in Chinese culture. Anniversary ghosts are essentially ghosts who appear on the anniversary of their death to re-enact the scene. The only way this can be stopped is if someone dies in its place on that same day, the same way, in the same spot so that the soul that is tr apped and doomed to repeat its painful death will be released. Unfortunately, the person who has died in their place will be doomed to repeat his 11. Jones, Constance The Complete Book of Death and Dying (135) 12. Jones, Constance The Complete Book of Death and Dying (129)Ã or her death, unless a specialist performs a ritual to set the spirit free. One can already tell that the Chinese have great respect for the dead and their ancestors. Chinese attitudes and beliefs about death are influenced by Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism 13. Ã¢â¬Å"If one does not know life,Ã how can he begin to know death.Ã¢â¬ Confucius (Fig. 1) The Chinese honors the dead regularly by presenting offerings and prayers since they believe that these practices push forth the sense that death occurs all the time and that it should be accepted into daily life. 13. Jones, Constance R.I.P. The Complete Book of Death and Dying (12) 14. Figure 1 is from T.C. Lai To The Yellow Springs (14) NOTE! Blank Spaces are for images taken from books. Be sure to add corresponding images to this essay.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
One day, while I was laying peacefully on my bed, my mother came in with a letter from Florida A&M University. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really want to speculate anything because a few days before I received a letter from another college saying that I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t accepted. Nevertheless I was still excited when I opened it and even more so when I read that I had been accepted. So without much hesitation I packed up and headed to Tallahassee. When I arrived my mother and I took care of registration and a plethora of things you have to manage as a new student. After all the hassles of college registration were completed my mother departed for home and I was left by myself to attend college. What a great feeling! Little did I know what I had on store for the next day, my first in college. The time was around 6:30 am, my alarm rang and it suddenly hit me that IÃ¢â¬â¢m now in college. I got out of bed a little earlier than I normally would have to because I knew nothing more than which classes that I was supposed to attend. As I prepare myself for a day of school I noticed my roommateÃ¢â¬â¢s door was open. I went asked him a little about the bus situation, he told me that I should just walk in the morning because the bus isnÃ¢â¬â¢t that reliable at times. That later turned out to be very true, I have taken the bus to school since IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been here at FAMU. So I began walking to class but as I walked I saw a few people waiting for the bus and I started to question my roommates theory about the bus, yet I kept walking toward campus. As I get to campus IÃ¢â¬â¢m in complete and utter dismay because I knew what my class schedule was but I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t actually know where the classes were. So as I walk pondering on where to go I happen to see a building that says housing. I walk into the building and luckily there was someone there. I look on my schedule and asked where the building was of what I thought was my first class. One of the gentlemen took me outside and showed me the building. I thank him sincerely and went about my way. I walked all the way to the building and sat down because I noticed that I had a little time before the class started. I just happen to take look at my schedule again and I noticed that the class that IÃ¢â¬â¢m actually waiting for is my second class. At this point IÃ¢â¬â¢m very upset with myself because I askedÃ for the wrong class. So I walked reluctantly back to the housing office hoping that they would help me again. As I walked back IÃ¢â¬â¢m thinking to myself Ã¢â¬Å"I hope theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not too busy to help meÃ¢â¬ . When I get back into the office luckily it was a different person there so I ask them were this building was. She told me but she was very unclear and I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t sure what she was talking about. Her almost exact statement was Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s near the gymÃ¢â¬ . I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t sure if the gym had rooms in it or what. So as I go toward the gym and a guy asks me where a class was, I say with a confused look on my face Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t knowÃ¢â¬ so he asked somebody else and they helped him out. At one point it sounded like we had the same class so I followed him. This class was actually in the gym, so I stood there for a while and I overheard somebody saying that it was an aerobics class so I left in search of my class yet again. Next I leave that class to find somebody else to help me out a little. I find someone and although he was very vague on giving directions also I managed to find the class. Remarkably I still managed to make it to the class on time. Finally I took a seat and the instructor started speaking. I realized that the person who is speaking isnÃ¢â¬â¢t even the instructor of that class, she was out that day. So the substitute hands out the syllabus and an overview of chapter one. All in all IÃ¢â¬â¢d say I spent 15 minutes in that class. Thinking back, I had spent more than 15 minutes just searching for the class. As I walked toward my other class I realize that my two trips to housing where actually a good thing, because I already knew where this class was. In this class I had a very interesting teacher. He was a very loquacious man and said he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t write anything down on the board nor did he repeat anything, so you had to get it right the first time. After about 45 minutes of that it was time for me to go home. So walked back to my room and took a well deserved nap. That concluded my first day at FAMU. Overall this university is a great place to further your education although, like any other institution of higher learning, it does have its faults. My first day was filled with confusion and challenges but I managed to getÃ though it as will any other first day student. Generally I think this will be a great experience for me and ultimately it will help me in pursuit of my career dreams.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Final exam economics - Assignment Example --True 37. The Ã¢â¬Å"Swedish modelÃ¢â¬ of providing maximum income security was a major factor in causing SwedenÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP per capita to increase relative to that of other European countries and the U.S. after the 1960s and 1970s. --True 48. Today, the U.S., with 5 percent of world population, produces 22 percent of world GDP; while Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, with 7 percent or world population, produce 6 percent of world GDP. --True 66. Among the factors leading to the decline of the planned socialist economies are lack of technological progress, diminishing returns to capital, inefficiency, problems with incentives, and the complexity of planning. --True 70. Economists believe that differences in initial conditions, policy measures, and environmental factors are important determinants of differences in economic performance among transition economies. --True 99. Although private-sector employment as a percentage of total employment varied widely among transition economies in the early stages of transition, in later stages there has been very little variation in relative private-sector employment.
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Network Management - Essay Example Network management tools can also help in providing security to the systems. A network management tool known as "The Multi Router Traffic Grapher" is used to monitor the traffic load on all the network links. Emails are also monitored to delete spam and virus-infected emails at server itself and also to ensure that attachments are not too heavy to clog the rest of the system. Another network management tool "Nagios", which is a network and server monitoring system is also used. Nagios helps monitor network services, processor load, system logs, disk usage, etc. and is capable of providing email and SMS notifications as well. Nagios also allows proactively resolving problems by defining event handlers. To summarize, network management tools can help a network manager understand when any component of the network is about to fail or has already failed, or whose security has been compromised (e.g. through a viral attack), when the traffic has reached its peak, and most importantly, to know that everything is working fine. Structure of Management Information (SMI) is a component that is used in network management and provides the rules required in network management. It is based on object definition language known as Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) and operates in Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). It "defines the general rules for naming objects, defining object types (including range and length), and showing how to encode objects and values" (Yang, n.d.). However, SMI does not define the number of objects that an entity should manage. It also does not define the names of the objects that are to be managed. Also, it does not define the how the objects and their corresponding values will be associated. A managed object has the following three attributes: a. Name: The name of the object known as the object identifier (OID) is used to uniquely define a managed object. There is no restriction on the type of name - it can be human readable or it could be numeric like an IP address. The naming convention of these managed objects is based on the ASN.1 naming scheme as mentioned earlier, which is hierarchical in nature. So an object identifier is made up of a series of integers separated by dots. These series is based on the nodes in the tree and is hierarchical. The figure below shows an example of an object identifier. As can be seen from the figure, the management branch (i.e. mgmt in the figure) defines a standard set of internet management objects (hierarchically above mgmt) and is named as iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt or 18.104.22.168.2. b. Type and syntax: ASN.1 is machine, OS and language independent method for describing data types and rules that define how data will be transmitted over the network. The data-types are described in brief below: Type Size Description INTEGER 4 bytes An integer with a value between -231 and 231 - 1 Integer32 4 bytes Same as INTEGER Unsigned32 4 bytes Unsigned with a value between 0 and 232 - 1 OCTET STRING Variable Byte-string up to 65,535 bytes long OBJECT IDENTIFIER Variable An object identifier IPAddress 4 bytes An IP address made of four integers Counter32 4 bytes An integer whose value can be incremented from zero to 232; when it reaches its maximum value it wraps back to zero Counter64 8 bytes 64-bit counter Gauge32 4
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
The Handmaid's tale is a story about power structures existing in life and relationships. Discuss - Essay Example The story was written in the 1980s in the wake of revived conservatism and religious awakening that superseded the turbulent 60s and 70s when the battle of the sexes was at its peak. The feminist movement had enabled women to take control of their lives and there was a shift in the balance of power between the sexes. Consequently there was concern about declining morality, sexual freedom and its implications and the plummeting birth-rate due to increased birth control, infertility due to pollution and other factors and the legalization of abortion. Religious conservatives raised their voices in protest and lots of people where brought under their sway. The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale was written by Atwood in order to explore the consequences of fanatical commitment to the intolerant principles espoused by religious extremists. The story is set in the future, where the United States is overrun by extremist Christian revolutionaries. What follows is a reign of terror, narrated by Offred, a lowly handmaid in the newly developed power structure. Handmaids exist for breeding purposes and their worth is measured by the viability of their ovaries. They are assigned to elite couples, in the upper echelons of power, who have been unable to conceive. Their menstrual cycles are closely monitored and at the right time, the handmaids must have sex, in a bizarre ritual where they lie between the legs of the wivesÃ¢â¬â¢ who clasp their hands, while their husbands do what is necessary in order to procreate, in keeping with biblical precedent. Women have absolutely no freedom in the Republic of Gilead and lead severely restricted lives. In the course of her chilling narrative, Offred deviates from the present in order to talk about the past and in doing so helps the reader reconstruct the events that led up to the present state of affairs. She talks about her love affair with Luke and their marriage which was nullified by the new regime as it does not condone
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Fine Foods - Essay Example Advertisements are placed on websites and local media and some are displayed through a company intranet. One of the best things about their policy is that they try to hire from within the company. That means that employees are familiar with the operations and the culture. However, if a company becomes to reliant on this method of hiring they will find that they rarely have new blood or ideas. It is important not to over-prioritize internal hiring as it can lead to redundant thinking and tiredness. KudlerÃ¢â¬â¢s training program is substantial. One of the best things about it is the 60 day buddy period which allows new employees to be supervised and gently acculturated to the company. However, 60 days is a long time to have a buddy and surely that Ã¢â¬Å"buddyÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ productivity will be reduced if he spends all his time with the new employee. If too many employees are hired at once, too many buddies will be spending all their time training. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to keep this in mind. All payroll data is outsourced by Kudler. In some respects this is a good idea because it frees up HR resources in the company and saves a certain amount on personnel and the data system. However, one possible drawback of this method is the security of the employees data. By outsourcing the system to another company it is possible that confidentiality might be breached. No one wants that. A thread that runs through all these aspects of KudlerÃ¢â¬â¢s human resource management is a culture of respect for the employees. Management is a complex art. It involves a lot of angles relating to competition, performance and commitment. It also has a lot to do with competition. Kudler is hardly the only fine foods company in town and they must constantly be monitoring their competition to see how they are performing. Their prices and services change depending on the successes and failures of the competition. Training and