Saturday, August 31, 2019

Women in the Early 19th Century

The American experiment that began as a Republic after ratification of the Constitution created political, social, and economic participation for its citizens, but not for women. The status of women in the early 19th century was shaped by economic considerations, religious beliefs, and long-held notions of female inferiority. While poor, laboring women suffered the most, the characteristics of inequality were evident in all social classes. The Proper Role of Women in the Early RepublicThe early 19th century experienced a shift, at least for women in the urban centers of the Northeast, from the household economies that reflected an agricultural society to the necessity of linking female responsibilities with their husband’s careers. For lower class women, this meant supplementing family income by working either in early industrial mills, as domestic servants, or vending on city streets. Upper middle class women focused on social endeavors tied to their husband’s employme nt and continued social upper mobility.This included supervising servants, facilitating parties, and raising the children. Women who voiced any political activism were frowned upon. Perhaps the only place a woman might venture such opinions was around the dinner table. Above all, women were equated with virtue and purity. Middle and upper class women devoted time to helping charities that sought to alleviate the plight of the poor, especially widows and abandoned mothers with children. They worked with Protestant missions and labored to save poor women from prostitution.Due to the cult of female purity, they were viewed as being the best teachers, the â€Å"moral guardians† of society. Women in the Working Class In the early 19th century, many Northeast cities, especially port cities, saw an increase in crude mass production industries, as in the first textile mills. One result was the use of poor class women working for cheap wages, often to augment their husband’s me ager incomes. Some poor women left the cities during periods of harvest to assist farmers needing cheap laborers.Others earned meager sums vending on city streets. Still others worked in the growing sewing trades or as domestic servants. Single mothers, however, were often forced to rely on the Almshouses and the various charities geared toward the poor. Widows had a particularly difficult time. Historian Christine Stansell, in her 1986 study of New York women 1789 to 1860, writes that â€Å"widowhood was virtually synonymous with impoverishment. † Another result of the changes in female status was the slow decline in birthrates.Historians John D’Emilio and Estelle B. Freedman state that, â€Å"Economic interest encouraged some families to have fewer children. † They demonstrate a possible correlation of the rise of industrialization and the decline of agricultural pursuits with steadily lowering birthrates throughout the 19th century. Impact of Protestant Theol ogical Shifts By the early 19th century, Protestantism had discarded earlier notions of man’s relationship to God. This was particularly true of the Calvinist principle of predestination.Religion focused on an individual relationship with God and placed on man a greater sense of controlling one’s destiny. These views were being shaped by Transcendentalism as well as the emphasis on personal commitment coming out of the Second Great Awakening. Such views had a direct impact on sexuality and lowering birthrates. Sexuality was no longer simply a loveless act of procreation. Thus, families limited the number of children based on their economic situation. Still, the changing attitude was not universal and men and women had numerous children, especially in rural, farm areas.Lucretia Mott, an early advocate of women’s rights, for example, had six children. Female Status in the Early 19th Century Although the expectations of women in the early 19th century were shifting , their status within a patriarchal society remained the same. Politically, they were powerless. Job opportunities were severely limited. Because of the social expectations that tied female dependence on men, single women and widows were the most vulnerable. Even upper middle class women were doomed to conform to patterns of daily life that were dictated by their husbands.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Bigger, Faster, Stronger Essay

Chris Bell who came from an overweight family narrated this film. Chris did not want to be like his father when he was younger; instead he wanted to be like Arnold Schwarzenegger. Chris’ older brother would beat up kids who made fun of him so he was nicknamed Mad Dog. His younger brother hated school and had a learning disability. His younger brother was nicknamed Smelly. Chris and his brothers would wrestle in their basement. Mad Dog had become football captain at his school, while Smelly and Chris began participating in body building competitions. Chris was the strongest kid in his high school and held the New York record. Chris had started to get accused of using steroids. By his senior year he was one of the strongest kids in the country. He moved to California and trained at the gym that Arnold Schwarzenegger trained at. All he accomplished with moving was landing a job at Gold’s Gym selling memberships. It was said that some move to California and live out of thei r cars to lift at Gold’s Gym. Chris was always against steroids, so when he found out that all his heroes had used them he was very bothered. Chris’ older brother, Mad Dog, stated using steroids while playing football at University of Cincinnati. Shortly after he quit college to pursue another dream of his which was professional wrestling. Mad Dog was the guy who got paid to make other wrestlers look good by getting beat up. Mad Dog was told he would get a contract, but never did. Mad Dog started doing drugs in addition to steroids. He said he would rather be dead than average and later attempted to commit suicide. Smelly also followed Mad Dog and took steroids. He also pursued his wrestling dream, but unlike Mad Dog he had a wife to consider. After having a son, Smelly realized that wrestling was not the life he wanted. Smelly and his wife settled down in the suburbs and opened a gym. But even after quitting wrestling the steroid usage did not stop. Chris could not understand why he was so against steroid usage, but his brothers were not. It is said that many of the baseball players were using steroids and baseball players because of this went from being scrawny to looking like wrestlers. In 2005 Congress spent 151 days in session and 8 of those they spent debating the use of steroids. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention anabolic steroids kills 3 people a year and is #142 in top killers. Steroids are synthetic versions of hormones that your body produces naturally. Some side effects of steroids are acne, hair growth, and reduced sperm count. Some side effects in women are deepened voice, menstrual problem, and enlarged clitoris. Some of these side effects are not reversible. Testosterone tells the body to increase muscle size and strength and helps you recover from workouts faster. For kids some experts think steroids can stunt their growth, but it is not proven. No one has ever done studies on long-term effects of steroids. Congress wanted to pass a law that would control steroids like cocaine and heroin. In 1990 Congress passed the Anabolic Steroid Control Act. This video has not changed my opinion on steroids. My thought on steroids before watching this video was that it should only be used for medical reasons. I consider those who use steroids to gain an advantage over others in professional sports as cheaters. This video, however, did introduce me to many other types of people who use steroids such as pilots, porn stars, and musicians.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

The Business Environment Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

The Business Environment - Assignment Example The company’s mission statement is to bring the best computing knowledge and experience to students, professionals, and consumers around the world, through being innovative in the way it builds its hardware, software, and internet ads. Apple Inc. is subjected to corporate taxes. Apple Inc. shareholders and officers are not liable for any corporate debts. Therefore, in case the business is facing economic times and want to dissolve and leave a specific market due to debts, the shareholders personal assets or finances cannot be used to pay the debts of the company (Lancaster & Reynolds 2002). Virgin Atlantic was formed in 1984 by Richard Branson. The airline is based at London’s Gatwick and Heathrow airports. Furthermore, it is also based in Manchester Airport. It is a limited business which has developed over the years to become the second largest carrier serving major cities across the world. Unlike in Apple Inc., the salaries of the employees are only subjected to self-employment taxes (Balmforth 2009). Employees of Apple Inc. have a major role in decision making of the company. In this company, employees have a major stake because they are liable for the success of the business. In addition, they are expected to ensure that all operations of the business are running smoothly. Due to the fact that they interact with the customers daily, employees are used by the business as an important source of information (Lüsted 2012). They are also expected to be innovative in order to maintain the competitiveness of the business in the market. The community has a major effect on the operations of the business. Unlike Virgin Atlantic which is only focused on the profits, Apple Inc. has a mandate of ensuring that it incorporates the interests of the communities associated with the business in its crucial decisions. In addition, such a company has an obligation to participate

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Children are victims of TV Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Children are victims of TV - Research Paper Example Watching television by the young children was considered by the analysts as cognitively passive (Kirkorian, Wartella, and Anderson 40). According to (Singer), the busyness created by watching television forms a sensory bombardment which generates a range of orienting responses which affect the reflection as well as cognition. This hinders children’s ability to process the content of television and learn from it. According to (Groebel), media has a big role in the formation of world views, world beliefs, cultural orientations, and the way values and images are distributed globally. (Huesmann and Eron) attribute the scapegoat role of television to the acceleration of violent crime as it has entered the homes of children. Watching television not only affects the academic and social life of children, it also spoils their habits. The research carried out by (Pine and Nash 529) led them to the conclusion that English children that view the television in general and particularly thos e who watch it alone are socialized in such a way that they become consumers at a very early stage in their life. â€Å"Young children have a limited understanding of commercial markets, and are unaware that advertisements are motivated out of a desire for profits† (Pine and Nash 530). They want to spend money and because they cannot get enough from their parents, their relationship with their parents distorts. Watching a lot of television increases children’s tendency to become criminals. It raises their aggression which they display in their schools and are likely to join gangs to participate in violence as they grow up. A study done by (Eron cited in Slotsve et al. 26) revealed that children that watched the most movies and television during their childhood had more tendency to be convicted of violent felonies or get arrested. Likewise, a research carried out by (Bogart) led to the finding that 22 per cent of the 100 criminals involved in the research had imitated t he acts of crime they had seen before over the television. Watching television affects the academic performance of the children in a bad way. Many research studies have tested this hypothesis that the attention spans of the children are shortened because of watching television (Singer; Healy). According to (Christakis et al.) and (Hartmann), watching a lot of television increases children’s vulnerability to a lot of complicated conditions like hyperactivity, attention and other issues of impulsivity. Likewise, (Koolstra and Van der Voort) concluded from their research that watching television leads the children to reduction of concentration in studies and lack of reading. Some studies have shown that watching television can be good for the academic performance of children. Most of these studies (Gentzkow and Shapiro) and (Fisch) have emphasized the role of educational programs in increasing children’s learning. However, the fact is that these educational programs make very less in proportion to the overall different kinds of programs shown on the television. Children are generally more interested in watching cartoons, commercials, and movies than the educational programs. Consequently, the negative effects of watching those programs entail. With proper intervention, it is possible to reduce the negative effects of television on children. In their research, (Rosenkoetter, Rosenkoetter, and Acock) made an attempt to reduce the negative effects of television violence on the lives of school-going children. The

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Poetry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Poetry - Essay Example This includes the season which is just as night starts in autumn, which is when the season of death, winter, starts. The short lines also make it seem as if there is not much left to waiting. The longest line is the first one, but its broken by the hard ‘b’ sounds. The other lines are very short, only three syllables each, and the last line is only two words. This makes it look like it’s coming to an end. 3(a) I think the meaning of the poem is that death waits for us all. A bird that usually symbolizes death is seen on a bare branch at the end of the living seasons and at the end of the day. I think this is how most people would interpret the poem. 3(b) The meaning of this poem is brought out through the poet’s use of literary devices such as alliteration, imagery and meter. Alliteration conveys the idea that something is about to stop and something else is about to happen. In the first line, the alliteration works on the repeated sound of the letter ‘b’ as in â€Å"bare branch.† This sound makes us come to a hard stop at the beginning of each word and makes us think of endings. This is reinforced by the imagery of the bare branch itself, which indicates life has stopped because all the leaves are gone. It is also reinforced by the meter of the poem because the line is so short. Alliteration is used in the second line to indicate that motion is about to start again with its rolling ‘r’ sounds as in â€Å"rook roosts.† Although the imagery includes a small bird finding a place to rest for the night, it also introduces a living animal into the scene which introduces motion, even if it is just the motion of breathing. This works with the meter to suggest the type of motion to be expected. The line is a full word and a syllable shorter than the first line, suggesting things slowing down. The bird roosts, which is to say that he is doing something. The bird is beginning to

Monday, August 26, 2019

Assignment Movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Assignment - Movie Review Example Throughout her stay at the institution, Susanna pays attention to her actions, trying to decide if the diagnosis was correct, or if the doctors were simply just trying to put a name to her common misbehaviors. The most common symptoms of borderline personality disorder are an insecure sense of self, harmful and unconventional relationships, impulsive and dangerous behavior, jarring changes in emotions, and suicidal behavior. The first symptom of of borderline personality disorder that Susanna displays is an attempt at suicide by means of overdosing. After the scene in the ice cream shop, in which she is confronted by the wife of a man she had an affair with, it became clear that Susanna engaged in harmful, unconventional relationships with others. As the movie progresses and Susanna spends more time with the black sheep of the ward, Lisa, she begins to display other symptoms, such as reckless behavior and erratic changes in her mood. She begins to defy her nurses and therapists. However, while the movie might be displaying the symptoms correctly based on the disorder, it can be said that Susanna engaged herself in the things that she did based on what she was learning from Lisa. The scene in the film that suggests this is when Lisa is about to take drugs and Susanna recoils from the image. There are other behaviors that Lisa displays that makes Susanna react in a way that would suggest that she does not have borderline personality disorder, as she is able to distinguish from harmful, reckless behavior and the proper way of facing a situation. Susanna was often treated as though she were normal, like she did not belong in the institution. Her parents were the only people to honestly believe that something was wrong with their daughter. Even Valerie, the nurse that attends to Susanna, seems to believe that whatever is

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Incentive Plan (paraphrase) for my HR class Essay

Incentive Plan (paraphrase) for my HR class - Essay Example It is the responsibility of the supervisor to conduct a performance appraisal on the employees so as to ensure that the desired performance outcome is achieved in the organization. To do this, different performance appraisal methods can be used. One of the methods is the critical incident method in which the supervisor will write positive or negative performance behavior of a particular employee throughout the performance review period. Another method that can be used is the weighted checklist method where by a large list of descriptive statements of effective and ineffective behavior of the job are rated on each employee. The whole idea of performance appraisal is to ensure that the business retains efficient employees who can collectively perform towards the target goal of the business. Performance appraisal is also used in incentive programs of employees in the business. Incentive plans and acknowledgment programs often overlap to accomplish a common goal by being supervisor that increased motivation to perform. But there are differences. Traditionally, incentives are reserved for salespeople and tied to specific behaviors or outcomes like selling a specific product or line of products.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Present Artmagazine Company Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Present Artmagazine Company - Research Paper Example The art magazine is basically the online shop where people can buy the art pieces and also they can criticize those pieces of art. Basically the can be classified into two broad prospective one is the painting and other one is the sculpture making. However, nowadays acting and theater are also taken as the act of art. The art magazine is one of the primary factors in the field of art and business. Art magazines are the important factor which provides all the information about the art. It contains much important information which is very much important for the art lover and the art dealer. Art is a unique talent and the attraction towards art is not seen in everyone’s mind. There are very selective people who love art and some people who love to deal with art as the art material has a tremendous resale value. There are many people who take these paintings and sculpture as an investment. However, we can say that the is the online magazine which covers all the aspects of the contemporary art factors. Magazines are basically a medium by which the information about the specific subjects can be conveyed towards the respected audience or towards the specific target group. Magazines are basically an entertainment factor in the human life, the proper design and the specific designs make it a unique representation of information. Artmagazine is the internet based magazine conveys the news about the art to the people who love art. There are several art magazines available in the market nowadays and each one of them has its unique characteristics. There are many art magazines are there which are only for contemporary paintings. These magazines cover most of the new age paintings as well the history of the paintings. Art is a subject which is very unique in nature and the target group (TG) for these art is also very limited and for that it is not commercialized as it is not for everyone. As the

Friday, August 23, 2019

Joint ventures and strategic alliance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Joint ventures and strategic alliance - Essay Example It also fosters reduction of risks and costs between the parties in different areas. Such areas include relationships with suppliers and the development of new technologies. Strategic alliances are sometimes considered to have equal magnitudes as joint ventures. The difference between the two is where an alliance can accommodate parties that are competitors, and the engagement lasts for a short time as compared to a joint venture. A joint venture, therefore, is a business agreement in which the parties involved agree on certain factors towards the development of what looks like a new entity. The factors are development criteria, finite time, creation of a new entity and new assets by contribution of investment. The parties to the joint venture contribute equity. Per se, they share the expenses, assets and revenue on agreed on basis. Strategic alliances and joint ventures are critical to the organization for a number of reasons. The paper focuses on discussing these reasons and whethe r the reason enables the alliances and ventures to complement global mega-mergers as a global business strategy. There are several critical reasons or important factors that necessitate for the formation of global strategic alliances and joint ventures. Per se, they are the benefits that international businesses may accrue from such alliances and ventures (Chou et al., 2014 p. 42). There are many motivational factors that may drive the firms to enter into the ventures or alliances. Per se, the use of strategic alliances and joint ventures is increasingly gaining popularity. A growing number of globally multinational firms are finding it better to carry their operations under such umbrellas. Firms argue that under such agreements, each party can bring to the table complementary strengths. Such powers enable the companies to gain significant competitive advantages (Chou et al. 2014, p. 42). The firm’s knowledge

Loyalty Program and the effectiveness on Thai consumer decision-making Essay

Loyalty Program and the effectiveness on Thai consumer decision-making in Hotel Industry - Essay Example All quotations have been distinguished by quotation marks and all sources of information have been acknowledged by means of references including those of the internet. Using a random sample of 150 Thai hotel patrons, the survey questionnaire found that male respondents attached higher importance on the hotel providing programs for children; sending out newsletters; providing upgrades when available; checking in and checking out at a time that suits customer; and helping the customer you with all other reservations upon reservation at the hotel. The results on Pearson r show that except for the last item, all loyalty factors significantly increase in importance as the age of the customer increases. The idea of promoting loyalty in customers is composed of an intricate set of tactics and schemes which is not only aimed at attracting more consumers, but also seeks to add value to an organisation. A hotel’s management team has to oversee the operations as a whole and in detail, which includes monitoring the over-all performance of every department in order to ensure that guests are always satisfied beyond their expectations. Products and servic es must possess a quality which when compared to others, is far more superior and would make customers feel that they could not find and come across the same quality elsewhere. The current research has been effective at ascertaining the factors that promote loyalty in the Thai hotels. The researcher concludes that the Thai hotel management must be keenly aware of the peculiarities of the needs and wants of its clients, to be able to dovetail their strategies towards these needs. Thailand is the 51st largest country in the world, particularly when it comes to the total surface area that it encompasses. It is a Buddhist country, and a very devout one at that, since the religion is currently being practiced by the majority of the population. The government of

Thursday, August 22, 2019

A Red, Red Rose Essay Example for Free

A Red, Red Rose Essay Robert Burns wrote â€Å"A Red, Red Rose† and edited by Peter Urbani. It was first in printed in 1794 in A Selection of Scots Songs. This was shown in ballad stanzas because it was composed with four – line stanzas or quatrains, having alternating tetrameter and trimeter lines which emphasized that the first and third lines of each stanza had four stressed syllables, or beats whereas the second and fourth lines had three stressed syllables. The line of this poem â€Å"Thats sweet / ly playd / in tune† was an example of iambic meter in which the first syllable was unstressed and the second was stressed. The implication of this poem was about the thoughts and descriptions of love in a way that exceeded beyond the non – literary sources from which the verse was drawn. The poet first similarly declared his love in a blooming rose in spring and then in a melody â€Å"sweetly play’d in tune. † For me, these similes indicated the beauty and happiness of being in love. The metaphor â€Å"sands o’ life† pointed out the eternal nature of the writer’s love that explained the extent of his love. There were much imagery mentioned here like the color red that meant love and passion and the exquisite image of the rose was represented by the recapitulation of the color â€Å"red. † The word â€Å"Newly Sprung† intended for his sincere and great love. As I analyzed this piece, I obtained the knowledge and information about the true meaning of love. The way he illustrated his love, I observed that for him it was precious and worth keeping for. Burns also declared that once we felt love and it was true, it must be for a lifetime. â€Å"Till a the seas gang dry, my dear, And the rocks melt wi the sun†, meant that no matter how far or near the lovers were, love will always be there and stays forever. The entire logic of this poem is about the unconditional love that he can offer to the one he used to love. The true love in a sensible way was being illustrated by John Frederick Nims in his poem entitled â€Å"Love Poem. † The love that was impossible and unreachable was also the idea being shown by this sonnet. The essence of sticking to the one you love regardless of his imperfect qualities was the theme of this poem. From the metaphors in Nim’s piece, he brought to reality the figure of a very clumsy individual. â€Å"All devotion, at your knees meant that despite of that unpleasant quality, she was so beautiful, charming and refine. Her good qualities were the reason why those who knew her keep her. From the lines â€Å"So gayly in loves unbreakable heaven/Our souls on glory of spilt bourbon float, it characterized that even clumsiness wouldn’t affect his love. The line â€Å"Their souls float on spilt bourbon†, which proved that they were happy with the presence of her fault. The metaphor in the line Be with me darling early and late, meant that they must stayed together during their youth and when they became old. The meaning of this line â€Å"Her hands, which shipwreck vases,/At whose quick touch all glasses chip and ring, showed the gracefulness of people. , and should your hands drop white and empty/All the toys of the world would break, described that the things she did using her hands wouldn’t fade away but will still remain and unreplacable. There were also symbolic images like my clumsiest dear, chip and ring, bull in china and a bur in linen† that showed the partnership of appreciation and condemnation. But in the stanza â€Å"The refugee uncertain at the door/you make at home†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (6 – 7) he commended the quality of his lover as a charitable one. Nevertheless, the whole idea of this poem was about the exposition of the girl he loved, her positive and negative side. He wanted to share the readers that in loving a person, we must adore his good qualities and love them despite of flawed qualities. The two poems are the same in iambic meter and in quatrains. The tone of both writers as they convey their feelings on their loved one’s shows that they are so much in love with love. They are so sincere in expressing their affection and passion towards their lovers with no hesitation and no limitation. When it comes to the voice according to the writers, I can see that Burns is so fascinated to his lover. All the things that he can see are all beautiful and the way he promises his love is so precious for him. As we go deeper beyond the meaning of the poem, the author doesn’t mind the negative traits of his lover nor mentions his flaws. Nevertheless, Burns only indicates how big his love is for the girl whom he loved. Moreover, how he promises that he can offer and sacrifice a lot for the fulfillment of his love. While, Nims obviously starts his poem in a different way. He shows the negative side of his lover. He even mentions the wrong impressions toward his girl. He doesn’t even bother to cover up the flaws of the one he loves instead of covering, he exposes the blemishes of his lover. However, the author doesn’t mean that he just wants to intimidate his girl but proudly tell the whole world and all the readers that despite of her flaws and shortcomings, he loved her so much. Now the difference of the two poems when it comes to declaring the love for their special someone is that the first author loves without looking or even mentioning the flaws of his girl or loving the person unconditionally while the latter explains how to love by accepting the reality that a person has the negative and positive characteristics. The symbols or images use in both poems also differ. Burns uses similes that focus on the natural resources like rose, music, seas, sun, sands, and rocks. For me, it implies that the author is a nature lover. He shares to the readers that when we are in love, the beauty of the things that surrounds us are all that we can see and appreciate and it gives a happy feeling. While, Nims uses metaphors where in the center idea is about the things or toys that can cause noise and to the things that we usually use everyday like vases, glasses, bulls, burs, dime and toys. In here, he shows the poem as if it is in a movie or in a story telling type. He details what are the happenings and how he accepts the flaws of the one he loves. For me, this poem is so interesting because he directs the readers to the exact situation of the things that are happening to him. He never hides the flaws of his girl maybe because the true meaning of this poem is about acceptance. According to my evaluation, accepting the weaknesses of the one he loves will show the true meaning of love. We don’t have to hide the imperfections of our loved ones because if we learn to love and accept them despite of the blemishes of the one we use to love, I think the power of love will strongly manifest and can’t be broken or shaken easily. But for me, both poems are so interesting and appealing. In reality, there are two kinds of lovers. The first one is the one who doesn’t see the negative side of the person that he used to love because he is blinded by his love while the other one is that he sees first the weaknesses of his lover and then learn to love that person. Both kind of love is passionate and ideal. Learning how to love though in different ways depends upon the person but we must love unconditionally, fervently, without hesitation and reservation, with acceptance and forgiveness, and by showing it through actions and words. Works Cited Burns, Robert â€Å"A Red, Red Rose† http://www. poemhunter. com/poem/a-red-red-rose/ Nims, John Frederick â€Å"Love Poem† http://www. poemhunter. com/poem/love-poem/

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Why african people are reluctant to attend counselling

Why african people are reluctant to attend counselling The research aimed to identify why individuals coming from an African background are reluctant to attend counselling services. This line of research was examined through individuals attitudes and knowledge of native and British Africans living in the United Kingdom. Data was collected using a Likert scale questionnaire consisting of thirty-five of which ten statements being tested for participants knowledge and twenty-five being tested for participants attitudes. Overall eighty participants (forty male and forty female) ranging from the age of eighteen to thirty years had participated in the experiment.   The data collected were subjected to a 22 unrelated two-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) between participants as participants can only be one or the other. The independent variable consisted of two conditions being participants gender and whether their background was native or British Africans and a dependant variable being the overall scores. Overall findings had shown that there was no significance difference between participants gender and origin in relation to individuals knowledge (F(1,76) = .965, p= 0.329) and attitude   (F(1,76) = .166, p= .685). The results did not seem to support previous research which many had suggested that African men will have a negative view on counselling. The research did however, raises interesting questions for future studies, and had allowed for a second experiment being designed for native Africans over the age of forty for further understanding of the new development. The overall results had saw native African men to more knowledge in counselling as women showed a positive attitude towards this second experiment made it clearer in understanding that different generation are carrying different views on counselling. Introduction Throughout time the African community prides itself on traditional morals and values in which can determine how they begin to perceive their surroundings. This notion can become problematic in many areas of an individuals well-being. As mental illness is common in Africans it raises the question on how they are able to put their beliefs aside and accept help.     According to Mind (2010) black people were more likely to be detained under the section 136 of the Mental Health Act (1983), section 136 allows individuals who are believed to be suffering from mental illness be placed under safety.   As more and more Africans begin to immigrate to the United Kingdom, it brings to light on the services that are available in ensuring that the needs of black Africans are met.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As an individual coming from an African background and having family who have immigrated to the United Kingdom form a Ghana, by seeing in firsthand how the views of counselling is perceive amongst the African community enables for this study to elaborate and understand the common problems which hinders Africans living in the United Kingdom from accessing counselling services. By looking into British and native African attitudes and knowledge towards counselling can play a part in the understanding to why African individuals fear help seeking services. The research will also examine the cultural differences between the western system and how it can have an effect n the African culture, as it is seen to be a barrier between how Africans approach counselling services as counselling purport to confront the social and emotional barriers placed within many societies, as well as ease the distress such social and emotional issues.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) (2009) states that in order for a client to come to terms with unconstructive situations one must be able to see things from a different perspective, which then enables change and choice. By acknowledging the early work of the Humanistic approach founded by Carl Rogers (1902-1987), marked an important development in the area of counselling as Rogers had set out to look into the individual as a whole and had outlined the concept of self-actualisation. This explanation saw psychological growth as it was portrayed that the sense of satisfaction with life was an essential human motive. However, Rogers wanted to understand an individuals response to certain situations and had devised the client-centred or person centred counselling. This approach gives the understanding that individuals have the skills to reach their full potential, however this may become blocked due to life experiences individuals face. Rogers approach see s the role of a counsellor being able to aid clients in accepting who they are as an individual, as by providing positive points to the client helps in the individual valuing themselves as a whole. The Gestalt Therapy considered by Fritz Perls (1940), another school under the humanistic had also similar ideas to Rogers approach. Gestalt therapy had focused on the experiences of an individuals thoughts, emotional and behaviour. The main approach was to make the individual become more aware of who they are, as by the promotion of here and now saw the improvement in removing certain obstacles. Gestalt approach was influenced by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) psychoanalytic theory, the understanding of emotions saw through the perceptive of human beings. The work of Sigmund Freud was first established through the understanding on the functioning of the human mind, the notion led to his own principles and techniques being known as psychoanalysis. The idea brought in many techniques such as free association which helped to reveal the unconscious beliefs and desires, and therefore was able to make the unconscious mind conscious; this had therefore enabled the patient to reveal their inner problems. By comparing the major approaches into counselling and psychotherapy, these theories helped to build a foundation into the outcome of positive and modern counselling techniques which is still used for clients with mental health and personal issues.  Ã‚  Ã‚   The British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) (2009) defines counselling as a private and confidential setting which explores the difficulty, distress or loss of direction and purpose that the client is facing, as the role of a counsellor should be able to encourage to look at different aspects of their life. The process of counselling has long been at the centre of understanding how human beings are able to adapt to difficulties and life changing situations. In order for clients to benefit from the help-seeking services, the essential information is needs to be highlighted and made available to individuals. As with the ongoing growth of counselling services emerging within society, counselling has faced a multitude of challenges throughout the years which have determined the outcome of different types of approaches being used for its clients. The lack of Africans not attending counselling services has brought to light the issue of trust that the client may have upon the counsellor as this can result in whether clients are able to seek help or not. Many studies have recognised the key issues that have become problematic in understanding the cycle of why many cultures are reluctant to approach counselling services, which will be addressed within this study. However, as majority of these studies address the issues faced within Africans American clients, the lack of recognition within the UK has led to this study being conducted, the views of British and native Africans may differ from the views of others around the world in relation to counselling. This leads to this piece of research focu sing on the knowledge and attitudes of counselling services within British and native Africans living in the United Kingdom. Literature Review In this review of literature based on counselling and ethnic minority engagement, the author will explore some of the reasons why black African individuals may resist engaging with counselling services. The Department of Health and Human Services (2001) highlighted the social stigma faced within many ethnic communities living in the UK. The term stigma was first seen by sociologist Erving Goffman (1968) as someone who possesses an undesired characteristic and who is therefore disqualified from full social acceptance. The understanding that Africans are faced with stigmation has been considered to be core explanation into why black individuals tend to be unable to seek the professional help-seeking services. The statement by the Department of Health and Human Services brought to light that many Africans avoid seeking help because of the fear of being seen as unstable by other members of the African community. Many Africans would rather handle their own business, than seek the necessar y help needed to overcome their own personal complex situations. In addition to the concern on stigmatisation, it has been argued that western models of counselling are culturally inappropriate for ethnic minority clients. For example, the European Guidance and Counselling Research (2008) has shown that clients from ethnic minority groups are least likely to make use of counselling services. As the statement recognises the lack of Africans interacting with counselling services provided many researchers such as Ridley, (1995), Lago Thompson (1996) and Sue Sue, (1999) looked into a possible reasons why this may be. These references have argued that mainstream approaches are white, middle class activities that operate with many distinctive values and assumptions, and had coined the phrase ethnocentric activity.   This term was centred on the one sided views and principles of the white middle class individuals which has led to the separation with other cultures in the UK.   Many cultures may view the Western system as unsuitable, as the needs of other ethnic minorities may not to be taken into consideration.    As more and more researchers begin to realise the ongoing problem in the way counselling services operate, Sue and Sue (1996) had considered an approach known as the Multicultural Counselling and Therapy (MCT) challenged the theory that only one technique of approach is assignable to every client. Sue and Sue developed the theory of Multicultural Counselling and Therapy, as a model which seeks to resolve the increased imbalance with different cultures by acknowledging and valuing different cultures which are being presented as well as promoting a method designed to enhance the present approaches. Pederson (1994) had also proposed a broad definition of multicultural counselling as ethnographic variables which looked into ethnicity, religion, age, and gender, as well as status variables such as social, educational and economic factors. Pedersons proposal argued that multiculturalism takes note on how similar and different individuals can be towards others, as Pederson understood that a n individuals differences did not matter in relation to counselling. However, according to Ivey (1997) who views multicultural counselling from a different perspective sees this term as a meta theoretical approach, this had outlined the techniques which exist within the cultural context. It stresses the connection between family and culture affecting the way in which individuals view the world. In addition, Ivey, Sue and Pederson had outlined the importance in working towards developing wider knowledge on the different approaches practitioners needs to adapt to and change to ensure the requirements are meet for its clients, as multicultural counselling brings in a new approach designed to ensure that all individuals from ethnic backgrounds are met. The concept of multicultural counselling brings in the research conducted by Sue and Sue (2003) who had looked into the lack of counsellors from particular ethnic backgrounds. Sue and Sue came to the understanding that the term counselling is considered as a white endeavor being controlled by White middle-class value system. Bimrose (1996) saw a clear pattern emerging and understood that individuals from ethnic groups were the least likely to request and persevere with counselling which concluded that individuals who had attended a counselling service were unlikely to return. In relation to this understanding, a study which had looked into the past and present views of counselling devised by Paul. M. Smith (1947) made clear for the need of black individuals having black counsellors, as black counsellors had the key in understanding the black heritage. As a result, the effect of Smith idea made aware of the lack of recognition and how it can have an effect on individuals well-being. The relationship between African men and women in relation to counselling has attracted considerable amount of attention in recent years. In an attempt to go beyond the negative views and assumptions about how men and women use counselling services by examining the problem enables for a wider understanding.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It is seen that a males identity plays an important role in relation to their masculinity as the constant idea of proving their manhood is seen to be earned. Society has long perceived men as emotionless as this term determines their masculinity. Balswick (1982) defines this as male inexpressiveness it was founded by Balswick that males tend to find it hard to express verbal fee lings because they are programmed not to do so. However, Skovolt (1978) relates Balswick understanding of male inexpressiveness to restrictive emotionality. Skovolt had founded that as men appear to have difficulty expressing their feelings and giving up on emotional control, can however plays a part in internal illness, as if men are able to recognise and become aware of their illness can lead to the reduction of mental illness and therefore begin to live a healthy life style. As the increase pressure from society expects men to follow the behaviours in which Skovolt and Balswick both describe, this has led to suggest that the traditional role of men may not be able to change. Studies into gender concerning counselling has seen a remarkable increase in men from black and minority backgrounds having a high resistance to receive counselling (Mind 2010). With the general growth of Africans avoiding the attendance of counselling services Cheatham, Shelton, Ray, (1987); Sher, (1979), Smith (2002) looked into the gender differences that the African community may face as previous research had focused solely on the services of counselling African men. The study allowed for African American men to freely express their own personal fears in counselling and overall found that men use counselling services less often than women. It was recognised that men will only do so if it was recommended by a third-party.   However, Coker (2002) suggested African American women are reluctant to seek formal counselling, opting for more traditional sources of support such as family, friends, and spiritual outlets and had often viewed the use of formal counselling as a sign of cul tural or personal deficiency. Many African women tend to provide their own personal counselling support as within everyday situations and surroundings African women are able to seek help from individuals close to them, as within these environments the importance of cultural principles help with their coping strategies. Wallace (1978) saw that many African women can go through what is called superwomen syndrome this theory outlines the little focus on their own personal mental health state. As a result of this syndrome many African women are prone to depression and other stress related sickness. The focus of this approach saw African women as being able to manage their own personal issues without the assistance of others. The syndrome has become another restriction on why women are not able to seek help, as once again the notion that men will be seen as weak is also seen in women. This shows that the pattern of stigma across both African men and women with respect to counselling has imparted upon on their personal health and reluctant to express their emotions. A study conducted by Komiya, Good, and Sherrod (1998) had shown that Africans who are told to express their emotions become reluctant to seek counselling, findings had also suggested that females had a more open attitude towards seeking couns elling than male respondents. Some researchers also focuses on differential access to counselling services, based on the intersection of gender and race. For example, Coker (2003) had found that African American women continue to use counselling services less than their white female counterparts, but when presented with severe challenges they tend to seek counselling more than their African American male counterparts. Judora J. Spangenberg (2003) had looked into person- centred counselling services and post apartheid South Africa had discovered the differences faced in the South African black and white community, this had seen a distinct difference in client and counsellor had indicated the lack of black counsellors in present South Africa as an increase in instances where black individuals are the client and have a white counsellor.   Apparently, some would describe the available counselling services as irrelevant for black South Africans (Dawes, 1986; Swartz, 1996; Turton, 1986) had regarded that many of these theories are based on Western culture which many question their usefulness towards black individuals. Pack-Brown, (1999) founded that white counsellors are expected to form the majority of counselling practitioners, currently and as well as in the future. While there are clearly some problems with the lack of black counsellors as the black South African make up 76.1% of the population (Schonegevel, Watson, Stead, 1998). It is also important to emphasise the need for cross-cultural counselling which draws upon experiences which has helped in the formation of cultural identity. Failure to highlighting and recognise the needs of Black Africans being counselled by white counsellors can hinder the progress of black clients. By looking into countries which are predominantly black and comparing it to western countries, brings to light the vast amount of difference in the approaches in which both are able to accept. Many African countries base their health on their faith as according to Wheeler, Ampadu, Wangari, (2002) who had suggested that religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in the African culture. Africans tend to rely on those who share the same faith or who have a greater social position as they are seen as more knowledgeable and wiser and therefore were allowed to criticise an individuals well-being. Within African communities an individuals religion and faith is seen to help them in finding a sense of self. Chatters, Taylor, Lincoln, (1999) indicate that religion and spirituality are very important to them. Having their religion and spirituality questioned on how to handle their own mental state may be a reason for the reluctance as to Africans not attending help-seeking services can bring some understanding into the common problem. Studies into religion in relation to counselling lead to the fact that Africans tend to rely on the strength and direction of their spirituality and by involving counselling strategies gives the idea of weakness, as combining both counselling and religion can be seen as unacceptable when addressing problems within Africans. Young, Griffith and Williams (2003) found that Africans who have a faulty relationship with a spiritual being could be regarded as the cause of someones mental illness. This statement brings forward the notion as to why Africans may not accept that they have a mental illness and therefore may feel that they are mentally stable. Counselling within developed countries focuses on the different problem areas faced within society, which can range from bereavement to eating disorders. Western cultures are considered to have a greater understanding of how to address client problems. Approaches which identify a clients social, biological, emotional and psychical state have been helpful in enabling individuals to become aware of counselling services. By the understanding and the positive effect which countries such as the United Kingdom help to promote counselling services are able to make society feel at ease in approaching and speaking to a counsellor. The BACP has discovered that Celebrities lead the way in promoting counselling and psychotherapy a report which was conducted by the BACP wanted to look into the progress of the therapy received in Britain and had seen that 83 per cent of British adults either have or would consider having counselling and psychotherapy. As a result of famous celebrities being able t o be open up to their own personal experiences with mental illness has enabled others to do the same. The media and its role in promoting counselling has seen such adverts called playing cards based in South African created by Herdbuoy McCann (2007) aimed to make aware the different counselling agencies that are available to the African community. As well as public advertisements, many African countries are aided by the work of volunteers from other countries as many see that talking to their own people can help with coming to term with mental health issues. However, by addressing the socio-economic issues faced, individuals who were born in the United Kingdom and have an Africa background may been seen as having an advantage to those who were born in Africa but moved UK as they have a led in adapting to society. Within the African communities financial issues is seen as a factor into why Africans are less likely to attend counselling, as within less developed countries it is unders tandable that by not having the relevant faculties would equal to a disadvantage in wellbeing of native Africans, and can result in whether the problem within Africans not seeking help may come down to financial issues.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  While there are clearly some problems with addressing counselling issues, the links between how western countries and African countries deal with counselling has remained at the centre of how much work is needed in the improvement of the system.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Ethnocentric Approaches to HRM

Ethnocentric Approaches to HRM 1 Introduction Human resource management (HRM) refers to the activities an organization carries out to utilize its human resources effectively, including determining the firms human resource strategy, staffing, performance evaluation, management development, compensation, labor relations. The staffing activity is concerned with the selection of employees who have the suitable skills required to perform a particular job. To perform staffing function effectively, there are three main approaches within international business identified: the ethnocentric approach, the polycentric approach, the geocentric approach (Dowling PJ, Festing M and Engle AD, 2008). In the article, the ethnocentric approach will be comprehensively and deeply analyzed, and then the advantages and disadvantages of ethnocentric approach will be figured out. Combined with analyzing the case of Hilton Group, we will see that the reason why the ethnocentric approach to HRM for multinational company (MNC) is out, that how an internatio nal human resource management (IHRM) effectively plays its part under the global context. 2 The ethnocentric approach to HRM for MNC is out. 2.1 General situation of Hilton International Group Whichever major city you find yourself in you may have a big shot to coming across a Hilton Hotel. Hilton International Group is a leading global hotel brand; the company operates 380 hotels all round the world and has subsidiaries located in 66 countries. Its 80,000 strong workforce looks after and serves an average of 8 million guests every year (Article, 2002; Annual Report, 2003). The quality of the Hilton brand is base on the customer service and its operational excellence is higher than in most industries. The same as all service businesses, the contribution of people is of central importance to Hiltons success. Hilton International is quite decentralized: splitting into countries, cities and individual hotels. This meant that hundreds of its managers have to be convinced about the initiative an exercise in which Skill-Soft plays a fundamental role to tackle different issues arisen from its 66 country subsidiaries. (Article, 2002) 2.2 Recruitment analysis of Hilton International Group The broad recruitment strategy determines the nature of the international manager development program and the type of IMD, suggested by Perlutter (1969) and later on by DAnnunzio-Green (1997). Besides the ethnocentric approach which tends to use expatriates in key positions abroad, there are other two different approaches available for managing and staffing companies subsidiaries, the polycentric approach and geocentric approach. The polycentric approach tends to use local nationals wherever possible and the polycentric approach tends to use a mixture of nationals, expatriates and third country nationals (Treven S., 2001; Datamonitor, 2004). For the ethnocentric approach, the cultural values and business practices of the home country put a predominant influence on the subsidiaries. The corporation headquarter determines all the standards of evaluation and controls the branchs management practice in the form of orders and commands (Miles, 1965; Malkani, 2004). For the polycentric appr oach, it is just direct opposite to the ethnocentric approach. The corporation headquarter allows its subsidiaries to develop locally but the corporation headquarter will supervise the local managers. However, this results in little communication between the corporation headquarter and its subsidiaries. For the geocentric approach, it combines the advantages of ethnocentric approach and polycentric approach. The selection of manager is based on competency rather than nationality and organizations try to combine the best from both the corporation headquarter and its subsidiaries. With regard to Hilton Hotel Group, it tries to integrate different parts of the group through the cooperation between headquarter and subsidiaries, and then implement combined standard of both universal side and local side for evaluation and management (Johnson, 2003). And at the same time, Hilton has attempted to recruit and develop a group of international managers from diverse countries for many years. These international managers constitute a mobile base for a variety of management facilities as the need arises. 2.3 The phenomenon Hilton Group unfolds and implies: the ethnocentric approach to HRM for MNC is out The recruitment approach of Hilton hotel indicates something that reveals the shortages of the other two approaches. As this article aims at the ethnocentric approach analysis, it can be concluded that the Hilton Group did not adopt the ethnocentric approach as the staffing strategy for some reason. Here what is needed to be explored is that what the reason is. Underling the phenomenon of Hilton Group not adopting the ethnocentric approach, there may exists some common truth shared the multi-national corporation, like Hilton Group. Is the ethnocentric approach out to human resource management for Multi-national Corporation? The answer to this question definitely is yes; the explanations and its analysis will be stated in the following paragraph. 3 Advantages and disadvantages of ethnocentric approach to HRM 3.1 The ethnocentric approach To analyze the question and answer above, firstly let us see what does ethnocentric approach mean and why the people use it to human resource management. Ethnocentric approach means the home country practice prevails within the company (Albrecht MH (Ed), 2001); headquarters from the home country makes crucial decisions; employees from the home country hold important positions, and the subsidiaries follow the headquarter management practice. The companies that adopt ethnocentric approach hold three reasons: firstly the company believes that there is a lack of qualified individuals in the host country to fill senior management positions(Dickman M, Brewster C, Sparrow P, 2008); secondly, the firm regards an ethnocentric approach as the best way to maintain a unified corporation culture; thirdly, the company believes that the best way to create value by transferring core competencies to a foreign branch is to transfer home-country nationals who have sufficient knowledge and competency fo r the branch. However, recently the ethnocentric is on the wane in most international business, for two main reasons: leading to â€Å"cultural myopia† and limiting advancement opportunities for host country nationals. 3.2 Advantages and disadvantages of ethnocentric approach As to the issue whether ethnocentric approach to HRM should be used in Multi-national Corporation, both the advantages and disadvantages of ethnocentric approach deserve to be analyzed and evaluated. The advantages of ethnocentric approach include: offers multi-national orientation opportunities to employees through the working experience at parent company; cultural similarity with parent company guarantees various transfer of business and management practices; permits tighter control and closer coordination of international subsidiaries for the headquarters (Grandrose CS, 1997); establish a big pool of international experienced executives for the parent country. The disadvantages of ethnocentric approach include: the subsidiaries may create problems of adaptability to the local environment and culture; the corporation may involve high transfer fee and salary costs; sending managers to subsidiaries may result in personal and family problems; it may be more possible to lead to high fa ilure rate; it may has disincentive effect on local-management morale and motivation; the subsidiaries may be subject to local government restrictions, and others. For Multinational Corporation, the ethnocentric approach shows a centralized authority management style. The local subsidiaries do not have so many decision-making rights compared with the geocentric approach subsidiaries. However, the business surroundings vary from one country to another. One management decision works out in a country but may not work out in another. Obviously this is unsolvable problem faced by the corporation headquarter that adopted ethnocentric approach to HRM. Surely there are other tough issues confronted with the MNC which adopts ethnocentric approach. But all the issues are arisen from the ethnocentric approach. Thus I think the disadvantages of the ethnocentric approach put a heavier negative role on the MNC management than the positive role put by the advantages of the ethnocentric approach. Combined with Hilton hotels operational environment differences, Hilton Group made a right decision of not adopting the ethnocentric approach. 3.3 Deeply analyzing the reason why the ethnocentric approach to HRM for MNC is out. Since it is a right decision for Hilton Group not to adopt the ethnocentric approach, then put it in another way, it is a wrong decision for Hilton Group to adopt the ethnocentric approach, at least at the time of present. Then it can be concluded that the ethnocentric approach to HRM for Hilton Group is out. However, can the conclusion be applied universally into other multi-national corporation like Hilton? If the answer is yes and the ethnocentric approach to HRM for Multinational Corporation is out, then what is the reason and how does it happen. The following is to deeply analyze the reason why the ethnocentric approach to HRM for MNC is out. On the related theme, if the foreign subsidiaries of MNC intend to succeed in a particular market, they must hire, train, and afford attractive career path to the local managers in the subsidiary country (Lucas R et al, 2006). Having those who know the language, the culture, and the business customs to operate the subsidiaries is quite crucial to reach the success of the subsidiaries. All these requirements above in this paragraph cannot be realized by the ethnocentric approach. For MNC, the ethnocentric approach denies advancement to the subsidiary country nationals, which probably breed resentment and diminish the corporation public image; the expatriate managers may become insular in their attitudes and prone to the cultural myopia, and the latter may lead to management overlooking niche market opportunities. The ethnocentric approach also frequently comes into conflict with host-country laws, norms and traditions (Schuler R. and Jackson S., 2003). It is clearly that the ethnocentric approach to management is not best suited to a global market place. And as more and more companies realize that the ethnocentric approach does not yield success, gradually this approach will be abandoned in favor of a more multinational approach. 4 The right way to perform IHRM and help MNC develop. 4.1 How IHRM works in a MNC Under the context of global economic integration, if the MNC wants to achieve success in the world market, it has to adopt a more multi-national competitive strategy for human resource management, rather than the ethnocentric approach. To explore deeper what constitute the success of a MNC for HRM, the characteristics of IHRM will be stated and analyzed here. Broadly defined, international human resource management (IHRM) means all the process of procuring, allocating, and effectively utilizing human resources within a multinational corporation. If the IHRM is a art of managing different people with various cultures, then the emphasis of IHRM should be focused on dealing with the changes among the differences from both the people and the culture (Warner M and Joynt P, 2002), and then to realize the goal of managing workforce efficiently and effectively across boundaries for the company, in other word, during the process of managing, people with different culture, ethnicity, values and ethos will be well coordinated and organized. Compared with the domestic traditional HRM, there are two somewhat conflicting strategic objectives that are needed to be achieved by international human resource managers (Sparrow P. et al, 2004). Firstly, the IHRM managers need to integrate the HR practices and policies across the subsidiaries in different coun tries so that the corporation objectives can be achieved. Secondly, the approach to IHRM must be flexible enough to allow for many differences in the type of HR policies and practices that are very effective in the different business and cultural environment. 4.2 The approach for IHRM working in a MNC: geocentric approach Based on the requirements of IHRM, according to the definition of the geocentric approach, and combined with the analysis of Hilton case, it can be seen that the geocentric approach is an effective approach to the international human resource management. The geocentric approach can not only help the corporation deal well with the local issues arisen in the subsidiaries, but also can demonstrate trust in local citizenry which is good for the public relations of a MNC and increase acceptance of the company by the local community. What is more, the geocentric approach can effectively represent local considerations and constraints in the decision-making process and maximize the number of decision options available in the local environment. 5 Conclusions IHRM focuses on the management of human resources on a global basis. For a multi-national corporation, how to effective manage various differences from the subsidiaries located in different countries is a crucial part to its IHRM. Then choosing the right approach influences the great implementation of the major international human resource management functions. Those companies that take the ethnocentric approach attempt to impose their home country methods on their subsidiaries. But it results in bad outcomes in the subsidiaries. Various issues arisen from the ethnocentric approach are confronted by the corporations that adopt ethnocentric approach. The multi-national corporations have to find another approach to effective carry out the global competitive strategy and deal with the local tough issues in subsidiaries. Hilton Group, though using large quantities of expatriates to manage its hotels, achieved a great success all round the world. It indicates that the ethnocentric approach to HRM for MNC is out. Then by analyzing the characteristics of multi-national corporations, the right approachgeocentric approachis proved to be able to tackle the issues arisen in subsidiaries. However, varied with the business surroundings changes and differences, the approach to IHRM implementation also needs to be adjusted. Maybe one day the geocentric approach is out to IHRM, a newer approach appears to help the MNC achieve success globally; after all, all the approaches aim to make the company win. References Albrecht MH (Ed) (2001), International HRM: managing diversity in the workplace, Oxford: Blackwell Article, 2002, A skillsoft case study: Hilton hotels, Boselie P., Paauwe J., Richardson R., 2003, Human resource management, institutionalization and organizational performance: a comparison of hospitals, hotels and local government, International Journal of Human Resource Management; December, Vol. 14 Issue 8, pp.1407-1429; Datamonitor, 2004, Hilton Group plc: company profile, April, pp. 1-9; Dickman M, Brewster C, Sparrow P (2008) International Human Resource Management: A European Perspective, London: Routledge Dowling PJ, Festing M and Engle AD (2008), International Human Resource Management: Managing People in a Multinational Context, London: South Western Grandrose CS (1997), Cross-cultural Work Groups, London: Sage Johnson A., 2003, Making room for recognition and reward at Hilton, Strategic HR Review, Vol.2 Issue 3, March/April, pp.10-12; Lucas R et al (2006) Human Resource Management in an International Context, London:CIPD Miles R., 1965, Human relations or human resources?, Harvard Business Review, Vol.43 Issue 4, July/August, pp.147-189; Schuler R. and Jackson S. (2003) Managing Human Resources in Cross-Border Alliances London: Routledge Sparrow P. et al (2004) Globalizing Human Resource Management London: Routledge Warner M and Joynt P (2002) Managing Across Cultures. London: Thomson

Monday, August 19, 2019

Adolf Hitler :: essays research papers fc

Adolf Hitler’s Early Years Adolf Hitler’s childhood was different than most, but alike at the same time. Here you will see what went on in his family, what happened during decision making of secondary school, and what he did after school before he became the man everyone knows. Adolf Hitler was born April 20, 1889. Adolf lived with his family on a small farm outside of Linz, Austria. His mother’s name was Klara. Hitler became very attached to her in his childhood. Alois was the name of his father. His father was in the Austrian Civil Service. Alois was used to giving orders so he demanded a lot of chores around the farm for the children. When Hitler was seven, the family moved off the farm to Lambach, Austria. To Hitler this meant fewer chores and more time for play. There Hitler went to an old Catholic Benedictine Monastery School. He took part in boy’s choir and also did very well at this school. He thought very highly of the priest and considered to be one for a while. At age nine he was caught smoking a cigarette by a priest. He was forgiven and not punished. His brother, Alois, Jr., described Hitler as quick to anger. He loved to play Cowboys and Indians when he was young. This gave way to battle re-enactments. Adolf’s little broth er, Edmund, died at the age of 6 from the measles. This was the first time Hitler had to confront a real death instead of the fake ones he sees when he was playing. This seemed to shake him up badly. His little brother was buried in a cemetery right outside of Hitler’s room. He developed a dream to be an artist before he entered secondary school (1). There were two different secondary schools, classical and technical. Hitler wanted to enter the classical school to become an artist, but his father wanted him to follow in his footsteps and go to the technical school. He ended up going to the technical school and did not do so well. He was held back his first year. Hitler thought that if his father would see how poorly he was doing in technical school that his father would allow him to go to the classical school where he could fulfill his dream. This career choice brought many arguments between Adolf and his father because his father thought that the idea of becoming an artist was ridiculous. Adolf Hitler :: essays research papers fc Adolf Hitler’s Early Years Adolf Hitler’s childhood was different than most, but alike at the same time. Here you will see what went on in his family, what happened during decision making of secondary school, and what he did after school before he became the man everyone knows. Adolf Hitler was born April 20, 1889. Adolf lived with his family on a small farm outside of Linz, Austria. His mother’s name was Klara. Hitler became very attached to her in his childhood. Alois was the name of his father. His father was in the Austrian Civil Service. Alois was used to giving orders so he demanded a lot of chores around the farm for the children. When Hitler was seven, the family moved off the farm to Lambach, Austria. To Hitler this meant fewer chores and more time for play. There Hitler went to an old Catholic Benedictine Monastery School. He took part in boy’s choir and also did very well at this school. He thought very highly of the priest and considered to be one for a while. At age nine he was caught smoking a cigarette by a priest. He was forgiven and not punished. His brother, Alois, Jr., described Hitler as quick to anger. He loved to play Cowboys and Indians when he was young. This gave way to battle re-enactments. Adolf’s little broth er, Edmund, died at the age of 6 from the measles. This was the first time Hitler had to confront a real death instead of the fake ones he sees when he was playing. This seemed to shake him up badly. His little brother was buried in a cemetery right outside of Hitler’s room. He developed a dream to be an artist before he entered secondary school (1). There were two different secondary schools, classical and technical. Hitler wanted to enter the classical school to become an artist, but his father wanted him to follow in his footsteps and go to the technical school. He ended up going to the technical school and did not do so well. He was held back his first year. Hitler thought that if his father would see how poorly he was doing in technical school that his father would allow him to go to the classical school where he could fulfill his dream. This career choice brought many arguments between Adolf and his father because his father thought that the idea of becoming an artist was ridiculous.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Hawthornes Brilliant Mind Essay -- Literary Analysis

Whenever reading a short story or novel, sometimes many questions pop into the mind wanting to know why the author writes in that particular fashion. In each circumstance, every author has a motivation that fuels them into their writing styles. For Nathaniel Hawthorne, influences came from every direction. Born from a puritan father, Hawthorne was always taught that god was the number one priority in his life. That he should always follow the rules and live without guilt or sin. When his father died at age 4, Hawthorne became increasingly interested in literature and was inspired by Spenser, Bunyan, and Shakespeare (Pennel 2). These authors had a significant influence on Hawthorne’s style as a writer (Pennel 2). For his Puritan heritage and his personal experiences influenced Hawthorne in his short story â€Å"Young Goodman Brown,† and his novels The Scarlett Letter and The House of the Seven Gables. One of the biggest influences of Hawthorne’s writing was his Puritan heritage. During the late 16th and 17th century, a group of people sought to â€Å"purify† the Church of England of remnants of The Roman Catholic â€Å"popery† left over from Queen Elizabeth’s I reign (Encyclopedia Britannica). The puritan people believed that one must be in convention with god in order to redeem one from one’s sinful condition. Later this reformation was an essential building block when founding colonies in America and establishing the Puritan way of life. Hawthorne’s great-great-grandfather father, John Hathorne was a Puritan and was one of the founders of the Massachusetts Bay colony in the 1630s (Pennel 2). So for Nathaniel Hawthorne, his Puritan heritage can be traced back to one most important people to have settled in America and establish his influence t... ...l about his interesting life. Works Cited Marks, Patricia. â€Å"Critical Survey of Long Fiction, Fourth Edition† Salem Press: p1-10. Literary Reference Center,. Web 8 May 2012 "Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864)." Short Story Criticism. Ed. Sheila Fitzgerald. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale Research, 1989. 152-197. Literature Criticism Online. Gale. Glendale Community College. Web 8 May 2012 Pennell, Mellissa McFarland. Student Companion to Nathaniel Hawthorne. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999. Print Pfister, Joel. The Production of Personal Life. Class, Gender, & the Psychological in Hawthorne’s Fiction. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991. Print "Puritanism". Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica. Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica Online. Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 08 May. 2012 Terence, Martin. Nathaniel Hawthorn. Revised Edition. Boston: Twayne Publishers. 1983. Print

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Essay

The topic that I have conducted research on involves underage alcohol consumption and various levels of academic achievement. More specifically, my goal is to conceptualize the increasing amounts of underage alcohol abuse by observing the affects effects that it has on individual’s GPA. Data obtained from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism suggests that four out of five college students consume alcohol. Of the students that consume alcohol, approximately fifty percent engage in binge drinking (NIAAA 2012). In consideration of the location where the study was conducted (University of New Hampshire), it seemed appropriate to pursue a topic that would potentially correlate with alcohol consumption. Past studies have attempted to address the issue of alcohol consumption and it’s affects effects on academic achievement, yet none have constricted the independent variable to a specific age rage. Returning back to data gathered from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, information was derived that suggested about seventy percent of minors have had at least one alcoholic beverage by the age of eighteen. In accordance with this finding, it was also recorded that although minors drink less often than adults, they do however tend to binge drink more often during an average drinking episode (NIAAA 2012). The objective of the present study is to better grasp an understanding of underage alcohol consumption and academic achievement. With the focus of the age group being confined to individuals less than twenty one years of age, new findings will be generated. The reduction of underage alcohol consumption is an extremely prevalent topic that many policy implementers and law enforcement agencies are faced with. Hopefully results from this study can establish a causal relationship that will aid professionals in dealing with this dilemma not only at the University of New Hampshire, but at universities across the nation. A plethora of studies have been conducted to observe the many negative effects that come from alcohol consumption. For those that are unaware, alcohol is a powerful depressant that ultimately slows down your thinking and time of reaction (CTC 2013). Also, alcohol consumption can act as a precursor to things such as brain damage, heart disease, liver damage, ulcers and various types of cancer (CTC 2013). Many individuals have been presented with similar facts, but they continue to drink alcohol. At the college level, many of the individuals that are consuming alcohol are under the legal age. Policy makers and law enforcement have been faced with this dilemma for an ongoing period of time. In attempts to control for alcohol consumption, many studies have been conducted to pinpoint the main causes. In a study conducted by Labrie et al. (2010), family history of alcohol abuse and its effects on college student’s alcohol abuse were researched. Findings suggest that family history has a correlation with college student’s personal use making them more prone to abuse (mostly males) (Labrie et al. 2010). With this finding however, minimal policy implications are suggested except for parental monitoring of socialization. In a study conducted by Rasul et al. (2011), the current drinking age is tested. Researchers were curious if a deduction in the current drinking age would have a successful attempt in diminishing heavy episodic drinking periods amongst college students. Findings imply that only in the rare case of high alcohol availability, and low levels of law enforcement, would the reduction of the drinking age have a small positive effect. With the full understanding of the prevalence of alcohol consumption in college in general, the question is posed of the effect that it has on academic performance. There is a brief existence of literature that focuses directly on this topic. In a study conducted by Singleton (2007), he examines the relationship between alcohol consumption and academic performance while controlling for key background factors. When SAT scores and class ranks were controlled, a significant relationship for alcohol consumption and academic performance was observed (Singleton 2007). In a similar study conducted by Singleton and Wolfson (2009), they attempted to observe relationships between alcohol intake, sleep and academic performance. Main findings suggest that the most significant predictor of academic performance was sleep schedule. However, the association that high alcohol intake would result in poor sleep schedule ultimately effecting your academic achievement was established (Singleton and Wolfs on 2009). Although past studies have observed alcohol consumption and its effects on academic achievement, none of them control for age. In the present study, the collegiate population that illegally consumes alcohol is examined. Findings will hopefully suggest that illegal alcohol consumption has a negative effect on academic achievement. If so, I will provide some policy implications that will help address and potentially minimize underage alcohol consumption. * Null Hypothesis: underage alcohol consumption has no affect effect on individual academic achievement. * Alternative Hypothesis: underage alcohol consumption will have a negative effect on academic achievement. To gather the data necessary to study alcohol consumption and its effects on academic achievement, two survey questions were contributed to a general survey composed by the spring 2013 methods of social research class at the University of New Hampshire. Our study was conducted in various classrooms at the University of New Hampshire using the method of convenience sampling. This non-probability sampling method will produce un-representative results. However, considering our limits of time and money, this sampling procedure was deemed the most rational. Professor Rebecca Glauber contacted five sociology professors teaching large discovery courses during the spring semester. These teachers agreed to let students in the methods of social research course field a survey to their students. No compensation was received by the participants. In the middle of April, three to four students in the methods of social research course attended the classes of these professors. During that time, the students stood in front of the class room and read a verbal recruitment statement. Upon completion of the statement, students handed out the surveys to all participants in the classroom. If the students agree to participate, they will anonymously fill out the survey. If at any time an individual felt uncomfortable and wished to remove their consent, that survey was destroyed. After completion, students placed their surveys in a box at the front of the room. Minimal risk is present in our study. On the survey, questions involving illegal substance use were present. This could potentially be considered a criminal liability, but since the survey was completed anonymously that factor is ruled out and the participants were protected. Also, questions involving states of mental health were present which could potentially have negative psychological effects on participants. There is no direct benefit to the participants of the study. However, results of this survey helped individuals in the methods of social research class obtain useful information that helped them draw conclusions that otherwise would not have been possible. In this particular study, no physical harm, and minimal psychological harm to the participants was present. In addition, the assurance of anonymity will help establish the goal of the benefits outweighing the risks. The variables used for this particular study were alcohol consumption and academic achievement. The independent variable, alcohol consumption, was (conceptually) theoretically defined by measuring the amount of alcoholic beverages that are consumed in an average drinking episode. The question used to address this variable was, â€Å"During an average drinking episode, about how many alcoholic drinks do you consume?† There were five mutually exclusive and exhaustive answers for participants to select from. (this sounds like it could be plagiarism so maybe change that sentence.) The dependent variable, academic achievement, was conceptually defined by measuring students GPA’s. The question used to address this variable was, â€Å"What is your overall grade point average (GPA)?† Once again, there were five mutually exclusive and exhaustive answers for participants to select from.

Cyber Law Essay

Need And Importance Of Cyber Law — Presentation Transcript 1. Why cyber law Information technology is encompassing all walks of life all over the world 2. â€Å" IT† has brought Transition from paper to paperless world 3. However!!!!There is a need to regulate the Cyber Space Cyber space creates moral, civil and criminal wrongs. It has now given a new way to express criminal tendencies Crime is no longer limited to space, time or a group of people. Due to the anonymous nature of the Internet, it is possible to engage into a variety of criminal activities with impunity and people with intelligence, have been grossly misusing this aspect of the Internet to perpetuate criminal activities in cyberspace.. Hence the need of cyber laws 4. Secondly!!!! Nobody then could really visualize about the Internet Initial laws of 1990’s were developed and enacted way back keeping in mind the relevant political, social, economic, and cultural scenario of that relevant time As such, the coming of the Internet led to the emergence of numerous ticklish legal issues and problems which necessitated the enactment of Cyber laws. 5. Thirdly!!!!! The laws of real world cannot be interpreted in the light of emerging cyberspace to include all aspects relating to different activities in cyberspace Thus the need for enactment of relevant cyber laws 6. Forthly!!!! Internet requires an enabling and supportive legal infrastructure in tune with the times Only with the relevant cyber laws in place this legal supportive infrastructure can be provided E-commerce, the biggest future of Internet, can only be possible   if we have the required legal infrastructure in place to compliment its growth 7. Importance of Cyber Law!!! In today’s highly digitalized world, almost everyone is affected by cyber law. Almost all companies extensively depend upon their computer networks and keep their valuable data in electronic form. Government forms including income tax returns, company law forms etc are now filled in electronic form. Consumers are increasingly using credit cards for shopping. Most people are using email, cell phones and SMS messages for communication. Even in "non-cyber crime" cases, important evidence is found in computers / cell phones e.g. in cases of divorce, murder, kidnapping, tax evasion, organized crime, terrorist operations, counterfeit currency etc. Cyber crime cases such as online banking frauds, online share trading fraud, source code theft, credit card fraud, tax evasion, virus attacks, cyber sabotage, phishing attacks, email hijacking, denial of service, hacking, pornography etc are becoming common. Digital signatures and e-contracts are fast replacing conventional methods of transacting business. Since  it touches almost all aspects of transactions and activities concerning the Internet, the World Wide Web and Cyberspace

Friday, August 16, 2019

Football betting

Football betting has been legalized recently. Although someone says legalizing football betting will benefit Hong Kong, there have been both arguments for and against this practice so I am going to discuss it. Addiction to football gambling can cause a lot of problems. One of the examples is financial difficulties. Gambling needs money. If a person gambles in a long-term, he may lose a lot of money. Not every time you can win some money from it, you couldn't earn a lot. It would spend your time and money. It may destroy your financial plan for retirement. There would be problems on work or even unemployment. You use all the time for gambling, you don't have energy and can't concentrate on your work. You work badly and your boss will punish you. Therefore, you may think you have to carry more and more pressure. It makes you more emotional, worsen work will be more. At last, you may get fired from your boss. Gambling will destroy your family relationship. They will leave you because you ignore them. There is an advertisement is talking about a father has gambling addiction on football. He puts all the money on gambling. He never knows what has happened in his family, even though his child leaves home secretly. At last, he thinks gambling is more important than family relationship, he and his wife divorces. Football betting could cause emotion problems. Gambling addiction is a mental-health problem that is understood to be one of many kinds of impulse-control problems a person may suffer from. The person has broken the law in order to obtain gambling money or recover gambling losses. This may include acts of theft, embezzlement, fraud, or forgery. He would try to hide the extent of his or her gambling by lying to family, friends, or therapists. Despite the disadvantages mentioned above, some people think legalization of football betting has benefits to Hong Kong. Football gambling is supported because Hong Kong government can earn tax from the gambling. Government thinks that earning money from the public and use the money back to the public for the treatment and promotion is the best way. There may be illegal organizations would be caught by police. They don't need to hide secretly to do the gambling. People can publicly gamble for football and people who gambled can entertain themselves happier. Government established a charitable fund to finance gambling-related problems for the implementation of preventive and remedial measures, and selected Caritas and Tung Wah Group of Hospitals to run two counseling and treatment centers for providing services to problem and pathological gamblers. When gambling is legalized, there will be a rise for employment rate. This is because there will be more demand of staff need to help gambler when gambling is legalized. If gambling is prohibited in law, resulting staff being fired. After weighting both advantages and drawbacks of football betting, I think legalization of football betting may become a disaster in our society.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Developmental Theory, Moral Development, and Gender and Cultural Influences

Most people are confused about how humans grow, mature, and develop a unique personality. This research paper will discuss the two different theories of Kohlberg and Erikson pertaining to human’s personality, moral development, and their gender and cultural differences.It will further explain the role of each stage of human development in shaping a certain aspect of their behavior, and how it changes over a period of time. Developmental Theory, Moral Development, and Gender and Cultural Influences Human beings start to develop from the time of their birth and will continuously change and develop until they reach the stage of adulthood.There are many theories that attempt to explain how human beings develop their personalities and identities over a period of time. Looking at the different theoretical views in psychology, it can be very confusing and misleading in terms of how an individual matures and develops.However, these theories will further explain and somehow let people understand the whole process of maturation and development of an individual. Two developmental theories will be discussed in this paper, as well as their similarities and differences.The paper also aims to present how these theories affect the development of an individual from birth to adulthood. The theories to be discussed are Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development and Lawrence Kohlberg’s stages of moral development.Erikson's Model of Psychosocial DevelopmentErik Erikson is a developmental psychologist who believes that a person develops their personality in a series of stage and ages. Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. Erikson's model of psychosocial development is a very significant, highly regarded, and meaningful thought.Erikson developed the eight stages of psychosocial development of an individual. In each stage, he believes that people experience problems and conflicts in life; thus, it serve s as a turning point in a person’s development throughout his or her life stages. These problems are expected to develop or impede the psychological ability of an individual (Wagner, 2008). The first stage of Erikson’s developmental theory is the Trust vs. Mistrust. This occurs between births and when a child reaches one year old. It is said to be the most fundamental stage in life.It is a stage where a child learns to trust the people around such as the mother or parents who are expected to be there and provide them with their vital needs like care, love, trust and food. Since an infant is absolutely dependent, developing trust is usually based on dependability and quality of the child’s caregivers.If a child finally develops trust, he or she will now feel secure living in the world. On the other hand, if trust is not developed in this stage, a child may develop fear and a belief that he or she lives in an unpredictable and conflicting environment (Chelsi, 2006 ). The second stage occurs when a child becomes a toddler.This stage is called Autonomy Vs Shame and Doubt. In this stage of development, early childhood is focused on enhancing a greater sense of personal control. For instance, when a child learns to control certain parts of his or her body like toilet training and learning how to walk, then he or she will have a sense of control.This child will feel independent as well and develop a sense of autonomy to do something on his or her own. However, if the child fails to attain personal control, it will result in feelings of shame and doubt (Wolfe, 2007). Stage three of Erikson’s theory is called Initiative vs.  Guilt.This stage happens when a child becomes preschool already between the ages of four and five. In this stage, a child become more active and will play and explore a lot. It is also where a child develops a conscience and begins to understand what is right from wrong.Support is extremely needed in this stage because if it is not present, feelings of guilt can develop and will be the source of conflict later in the child’s life (Wagner, 2008). Fourth stage in this theory is Industry vs. Inferiority. This stage occurs when a child reaches the age of 2-12 years old and when they attend early school.Every child needs to feel that he or she has achieved something in every work he or she does, most especially in school. That is why school is very important in this stage of development. If a child constantly successfully achieves something with the use of his or her own skill or ability, there will be a greater chance that the child will feel proud and confident within him- or herself. On the other hand, if the child fails to achieve something, it may result in feelings of inferiority and low self-esteem in the child’s personality (Wagner, 2008). Identity vs. Confusion makes up the fifth stage of Erikson’s theory.This stage takes place during the adolescence period of an individua l. Adolescents will try to discover their identity and figure out their personality and where they should belong in the world. It is the stage wherein a child begins experimenting since it is a way to discover him- or herself. If the child was not able to discover and know him- or herself, then there will be role and identity confusion in them. Consequently, he or she will be confused with his or her function in the world and can cause dilemma later on in the next stages of life (Chelsi, 2006).The sixth stage of this theory is Intimacy vs. IsolationThis happens during early adulthood between the ages of 18 and 40. It is a stage wherein a person explores personal relationship, specifically intimate relationships with other people. Thus, in this stage, people begin to date and find a partner to marry.Those who are successful will achieve a sense of intimacy and security from their partner or other people, while failure to do so may result in isolation and feeling of loneliness and dep ression (Wagner, 2008). Stage seven occurs at the age of 40 to 65, and it is called Generativity vs. Stagnation. In this stage, an individual continues to build lives but focuses now with career and family.This is where a person learns to care and be concerned for other people. Being active and participative in the world is what people feel if they succeed in this stage. However, having less self-worth is what people would feel if they fail to meet this stage successfully (Wagner, 2008). Lastly, the eighth stage in Erikson’s theory is called integrity vs. despair. This occurs in old age between ages fifty and up. It is a stage where people look back on their life and reflect on what happened.There may be a feeling of satisfaction or regret. They will have a sense of integrity when they feel happy and fulfilled with what happened in their life, while they may feel despair and bitterness if they think that their life was just a waste. Life is full of learning new things and cha llenges that help people grow and develop. This theory of Erikson is truly helpful for understanding a child and adult’s development (Wagner, 2008). The six stages of Erikson’s theory is related to the gender differences of an individual, with the fifth stage (Identity vs.Confusion) being the more crucial.This is because in this stage, it is said that people are try to seek their real personality and identity by choosing where they should belong and knowing their purpose in life (Streitmatter, 1993). Environmental, cultural, and ethnicity factors are present in the whole stage of a person’s development. These factors influence an individual over the period of time when a person matures and lives his or her life. Environment such as the family, school, and the whole society is always involved in the process.In addition, a certain culture and ethnicity of a person may give a great influence as well in shaping an individual’s personality, which makes them a certain persona living and functioning in the world. There may be a culture that is acceptable to the norms of a specific group of people, but then that specific culture may not be common and not acceptable to the other, so it is very important to know also where a person originated so that a person may understand why some people has different beliefs, values, and behavior in life (Child Development, 2006).Kohlberg’s Developmental Model of Moral Development Kohlberg’s theory is quite different from Erikson’s theory. His theory focuses on the moral development. It is divided into three levels with two different stages on each level, which gives a total of six different stages of moral development. Level one is the pre-conventional morality level, and it has two stages. The first stage is the obedience and punishment orientation. It is a stage wherein a child learns what is right and wrong actions and behavior.Children also learn in this stage that for every actio n they make they will gain a certain consequences of it. For example, if a child does something good, then they will be rewarded. On the other hand, if a child does something bad, then they will know that there will be a certain punishment and consequences for their actions. The second stage under pre-conventional level is called individualism and exchange. At this stage, a child learns to be concerned not only for himself or herself but for other people as well.Children start to learn reciprocity and stand in the position of doing something for other people if it is for his or her self-interest. Hence, the child will follow a certain rule if he or she knows that she or he will gain something from it. Children at this stage are very focused and concerned with fairness and equality. The justice here is â€Å"do unto others what as they do unto to you. † Thus, if a person does something good to somebody, then he or she expects that the person will do something good to him or he r as well.The same thing happens if a person does something bad to somebody; he or she then can expect that the person will do something bad to him or her in return (Crain, 1985). Level two is conventional morality, and the third stage is good interpersonal relationships.In this stage, children do something because they already know that it is good, and they will be able to have good relationship with family, classmates, friends, and neighbors. They now know the concepts of trust, care, love, and being concern with other people, giving them a good impression of themselves from other people’s perspective.In this stage, children aim to please people around them, and intentions are basically all good, since they are very concerned with having a good image to portray in the society, and since they are expected to behave in a way that the society asks them to behave. Fourth stage is maintaining the social order. It is still quite related to the third stage, but in this stage, a pe rson become fully concerned not only the people around them but the whole society and environment already.Now in this stage, a person learns about obeying laws and respecting the people and the authority, and they focus on performing a certain duty so that there will be a social order in the society. People at this stage will be knowledgeable about the societal law, and they are automatically expected to abide such laws that are imposed into their society and environment (Crain, 1985). Next is level three, and it is called the post-conventional morality where the last two stages lies ahead. The fifth stage is social contract and individual rights.During this stage, an individual believes and looks into his or her own moral values and principles in life and becomes aware that it should be also good for the society. People develop their own opinions, beliefs, and values in life in this stage.They also understand that codes of conduct are relative to their social group. This varies fro m culture to culture and subgroup to subgroup. A person enters into an agreement with fellow human beings to treat them fairly and nicely and to respect authority when it is equally moral and deserved. Lastly, the sixth stage is called the universal principles.This stage involves the universal ethical principles in an individual’s life. A person uses his or her conscience and their own ethical principles to decide what is right and wrong behavior and actions. Here people are motivated by their conscience that surpasses cultural, religious, or social convention rules (Uncgrad, 2007). Kohlberg’s theory and stages of moral development is said to affect the gender differences, environmental, cultural, and ethnic influences in ways. A research says that gender differences have no effect in the moral judgment of a person.However, they discovered that female are more likely to mature than male in the adolescent stage, making female more advanced when it comes to moral reasoni ng. Research states that girls are generally about two years ahead of boys in cerebral cortical and social-cognitive functioning (Silberman & Snarey, 2007). On the other hand, factors such as the environment, culture, and ethnicity of a person have a great effect also in developing a person’s moral judgment since these are factors that are always present in an individual’s life.For instance, when two different races such as Western people and Asian people are compared, the difference in culture and beliefs is very evident that it is only likely that they will have different moral judgment (Mulder, 1997). Both theories of Kohlberg and Erikson critically discuss and explain how a person builds their personality and moral development in the life span of an individual.Understanding both different stages of Kohlberg and Erikson will also prevent people from having conflicts and dilemmas in facing and dealing with life since people already know the sources and origins of hum an’s personality and moral development. References Chelsi (2006). Erik Erikson's Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development. Associated Content. Crain, W.C (1985). Chapter Seven: Kohlberg’s stages of moral development. Theories of  Development   (pp. 118-136). US: Prentice-Hall. Mulder, B. (1997). Moral Development's Development: Recent Research. Hope College.  Retrieved October 14, 2008 from Quintana, S. M. , et al. (2006). Race, Ethnicity, and Culture in Child Development:  Contemporary Research and Future Directions. Child Development, 77 (5), 1129-1141. Silberman M. A & Snarey J. (2007). Gender differences in moral development  during early adolescence: The contribution of sex-related variations in maturation. Current Psychology, 12 (2), 163-171. Streitmatter, J. (1993). Gender differences in identity development: An examination of  longitudinal data. Adolescence, 28, 55–66. Uncgrad, (2007). Kohlberg's Stages of Development. Associated Content. Retrieved October 14, 2008 from html?cat=7. Van Wagner, K. (2005). Stages of Psychosocial Development.  Retrieved October 14, 2008 from Wolfe Good (2007). Erik Homburger Erikson's Grid of Psychosocial Stages of Childhood  Development. Associated Content. Retrieved October 14, 2008 from